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In her Quixotic quest to escape Armageddon, Ms. Outlaw exacerbated a previously existing hip injury, and decided to sue Penny Pinchers and Cindy Scott, the store manager who owned the attack dog. A Mississippi state court jury found for Ms. Outlaw and awarded her ,, finding Penny Pinchers 70 percent at fault and Ms. Scott 30 percent to blame.
Remember at the beginning we told you it would help if you knew a little about the dog? Baby Weiner DogIt turns out this allegedly ferocious attack dog was nothing more than a four-month-old Dachshund puppy. A little weiner dog weighing four pounds. It seems Ms. Scott brought the adorable puppy named Sophie to work every day. The pleasant little puppy had never attacked anyone before. Scott kept Sophie behind the counter--not to protect customers, but so that no one would step on the little thing.
Rather than a pound Rottweiler with a spiked collar, Ms. Outlaw jumped on top of a freezer in mortal fear of a tiny weiner dog puppy. Given this fact pattern, Penny Pincher and Ms. Scott decided an appeal was in order. Outlaw: Did the presence of the four-month-old Dachshund puppy create an unreasonably dangerous condition at Penny Pinchers that day?
The court noted that the Mississippi Supreme Court had held that dogs are not dangerous per se. Grayson that to impose liability on a dog owner for personal injuries, a plaintiff must show the dog had a propensity for violence and that the owner knew it. The court in Penny Pinchers noted that the four-month-old, four-pound bundle of love, Sophie the Weiner Dog, had a clean record.
Darnell, the court went on to hold that a premises does not have to be completely safe from any hazardonly reasonable safeand that the plaintiffs own actions can be a factor. The law of defamation can be complex, but a New York state court recently tried to sort out this weighty issue: What is a "dirtbag," and is the term defamatory? The issue arose after a man named William Schumacher penned comments that another man, John Acheson, was "the biggest dirtbag" he had ever met in his life.
Acheson sued Schumacher before Westchester City Court in what, amusingly, could become a seminal case of black letter law. Apparently, no other U. Court has ever issued a reported decision on the issue of whether it is defamatory to call someone a "dirtbag. Schumacher said libel or defamation was "a writing or broadcast that tends to expose the plaintiff to public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or disgrace.
Without offering any citation, the court defined "dirtbag" as "an informal term" meaning "a dirty, grimy, sleazy, or disreputable person. Did Schumacher mean that Acheson was the physically largest of the dirtbags he had known? Or perhaps just one of the most powerful? The court surmised also that Schumacher may have believed Acheson to be "just a tad worse" than the other dirtbags he had known.
The point the court was making was that -- in any case -- these statements would all be opinions. Citing the case of Gilliam v. Richard M. Greenspan, P. In Gilliam, one lawyer penned a nastygram, saying unflattering things about another lawyer. The court held it was opinion and threw out the case.
In Lund v. Chicago and Northwest Transp. In National Recruiters Inc. Cashman, the Minnesota Supreme Court found it slander when a plaintiff was called "a no-good loser; a no-good son of a bitch" in the context of an employment reference. Other courts are more hostile toward such lawsuits. They lost on the grounds that a reasonable person would not have taken the photo and caption to mean Evel was literally a pimp and Krystal his prostitute, despite their year age difference and his rose-tinted glasses in the photo.
There was once a professor who reminded his students that the bubonic plague was all natural. Various merchants--from sellers of cereal to purveyors of popcorn--claim their products are "all natural. Activist ice creamIn the s, childhood friends Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield took a correspondence course in ice cream making.
Then they scraped up 12,, opened an ice cream shop in an old Vermont gas station, and delivered dairy products in a station wagon. Was born, and, as they say, the rest is history. In , Ben and Jerry sold the company to Unilever. Although they are now very rich dudes, Messrs. Cohen and Greenfield and their ice cream operation still conjure up images of granola, Birkenstocks, peace signs, and Dutch chocolateAlthough Amsterdam may be more famous for Rembrandt, the Rijksmuseum, and reefers, some people believe the Netherlands is also famous for Dutch chocolate.
But, does anyone really know what Dutch chocolate is? Chocolate is produced when seeds from cocoa beans are fermented and dried and mixed with fat and powdered sugar. Cocoa powder can be made in two forms: unalkalized cocoa or Dutch-process alkalized cocoa. The unalkalized cocoa is made by merely pressing the beans. The process produces a light brown, very acidic powder. Dutch-process cocoa, on the other hand, is produced by cocoa nibs with a mild alkali solution to raise the pH and thus, lower the acidity.
This process improves taste, color and solubility, but it also destroys many of the flavonols, which are believed to have health benefits. All Natural? Breyers did not. They alleged violation of both federal and California law in the labeling of the ice cream as all natural even though its cocoa contained potassium carbonate from the alkanization process.
The ice cream makers argued that "all natural" was a term of art under FDA and U. Astiana was merely an ice cream lover and not a federal regulatory expert. The only FDA guidance appears to be a distinction between natural and synthetic in the policy, but that definition in the Federal Register is qualified as meaning something that would not normally be expected to be in food.
Surely, that characterization raises multiple linguistic and philosophical questions, not to mention factual questions," U. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton wrote for the court. What have we learned this week? Well, according to the U. It seems to be a simple question. Get a bunch of lawyers and judges involved, and it becomes anything but. What about when that motor vehicle is attacked by a swarm of bees? It seems he was having a bit of a problem with a beehive.
Corpus asked Officer Mata to accompany him to the hive with the swarming army of displeased bees. Officer Mata insisted Mr. Corpus accompany him to the hive. Officer Mata donned protective gear and approached the hive of danger, but he instructed Mr. Corpus to remain safely in the animal control vessel as the engine remained running.
Things would have been just fine and dandy had Officer Mata not done something that may have been somewhat unwise. Insects Attack! Not unlike a Saturday Morning Super Hero decked out in protective gear as he makes Saturday mornings safe for kiddie sales of sugary cereal and overpriced toys, Officer Mata approached the hive in his protective animal control gear. Then, the swashbuckling hero of animal protection began spraying the bees. Guess what happened next? Shockingly, the bees attacked.
But, no worries. Officer Mata was protected by his animal control gear. The problem was what Officer Mata did next. To escape the mighty swarm, Officer Mata ran to the truck, opened the door, and hopped in. The only problem, of course, was that, when he opened the door to the animal control truck, he let in a bunch of very angry bees--who proceeded to have a field day biting the [expletive deleted] out of the unprotected corpus of Mr.
Corpus was not amused. What do unamused people do in this column? They sue. The Law of Bees and CarsMr. Operating a motor vehicle? What about spraying the bee hive and opening the truck door so the bees could turn Mr. Corpus into a walking, talking pin cushion. Actually, Mr. Corpus had a smart lawyer. Governments waive sovereign immunity for certain activities. Basically, you can sue the government only if the government says you can sue the government.
One of the exceptions to sovereign immunity in Texas is for operation of motor vehicles. If Mr. So just what does it take to be operating a motor vehicle? If you asked a bunch of convicted drunk drivers, they would probably tell you Officer Mata was operating the animal control truck.
Bud or Bees? For instance, in People v. Oh yeah, he also had a cooler full of marijuana on the front seat. Wood at first. Both a trial court and an intermediate state appellate court threw out the evidence against him, holding he was not operating his van at the time of the arrest and search.
However, the Michigan Supreme Court reversed both courts and held Mr. In doing so, the court reversed two previous Michigan cases that held one could not be sleeping and operating a motor vehicle at the same time. Actual physical control of the vehicle is the standard used by many jurisdictions, and in Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Nevada, that control can be maintained while sleeping. Putting the key in the ignition will get you in some states, including Vermont.
In the Vermont Supreme Court case, State v. Helton, one hapless, inebriated fellow was convicted of DUI for merely putting his keys in the ignition to roll up his car windows--after he had gone to retrieve his vodka from the car.
Note to self: appoint a designated sober window operator. So what about Officer Mata, was he in control of the vehicle and thus operating it for purposes of Mr. Corpus bee attack case? Departing from the case law of other states, both the trial court and the Texas Thirteenth Court of Appeals said "no. Corpus was injured when the bees entered the cab of the truck where he happened to be sitting.
Either way, its not a Happy Meal. As a public service to help our readers remain free from bondage, we will, from time to time, present our Case of the Week: Fourth Amendment Follies edition. Druggies from CharlotteRobert Little was traveling through the pleasant North Carolina hamlet of Thomasville early one August morning in It might not have been any big deal, but it was in the morning, and Mr.
Little was driving an old Buick with a malfunctioning headlight. Bonus reader helpful hint! Bad things will happen. At least wait until when the first batch of doughnuts comes off the conveyor belt at the local Krispy Kreme. Because Mr. Officer Kallfelz observed three things that made him decide it was time for back-up.
First was Mr. Second, Mr. Little said he was traveling from Charlotte. Finally, Mr. Little had approximately 10 tree air fresheners hanging from the rear-view mirror. Before we get to those pesky air fresheners, please allow us to defend the good people of Charlotte, North Carolina. But, back to those tree air fresheners. Rambo RaidA nervous dude driving from Charlotte with 10 air fresheners made Officer Kallfelz realize he needed a crime deterrent.
It was time for Rambo. Not unlike Sylvester Stallone searching swamps for sadistic Viet Kong alumni, Rambo, a drug dog, went over that old Buick like a frat boy going through sofa cushions looking for that lost last joint. Little was arrested for being a felon in possession of a firearm. Little moved to suppress the evidence, arguing the search was illegal, but a trial court denied the motion, holding that the stop and the search were lawful.
Little appealed. Little argued in State v. Little that the search was improper because the cornucopia of air fresheners did not provide reasonable suspicion for extending the stop until Rambo arrived. Unfortunately for Mr. Little, North Carolina has a proud tradition of air freshener jurisprudence. In State v. Hernandez, the North Carolina Court of Appeals held a stop was proper when it was based, at least in part, on Christmas tree air fresheners.
Not unlike with Mr. I noticed a strong odor coming from the vehicle," Trooper Whitley testified in defending his actions. Christmas tree air fresheners as a basis for detaining a motorists? Well, the court upheld the stop, and the court in Little followed the court in Hernandez.
And, if you think North Carolina is the only state fighting the war on air freshener, you would be wrong. In Commonwealth v. Watts, the Massachusetts Appeals Court held reasonable suspicion could be based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener drier sheets. The federal courts have joined this attack on pleasant aromas as well. In United States v. West, the Tenth Circuit proclaimed, "The Tenth Circuit has consistently held that the scent of air freshener is properly considered as a factor in the probable cause analysis, and in the Eleventh Circuit held in United States v.
Wright that evidence of a drug conspiracy existed based partially on the fact that two persons entered the Winn-Dixie together to purchase carpet freshener and fabric softener; materials known to be used to mask the odor of cocaine. Many other federal circuits, including the Third, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth, have upheld convictions based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener, and in United States v.
She brought along a box of Bounce fabric softener sheets. If you have contraband and notice Rambo sniffing your car, ditch the fabric softener Bounce can get you busted. But what if your employer hoisted a sign informing customers there would be a two-dollar charge for your services? Would that payment be your tip? Would posting that sign get somebody sued? Of course, it would. This is the Case of the Week.
Air a la carteOur story begins in Sept. Before this policy began, curbside check-in was free, but customers tipped the skycaps--usually a dollar per bag--for curbside service. Until American went and messed up things, most skycaps earned most of their earnings from tips. As the airline industry faced significant financial problems, airlines began charging for many services that had been free.
This a la carte fee system affected everything from headphones to handbags. Want to watch the in-flight movie? No problem. Want to hear it? Two dollars for headphones, please. Want to eat? Pay up. At the moment, we can add curbside check-in to our non-complimentary airline a la carte menu. American--and its subcontractor actually employing the skycaps--made out like Tijuana bandits. The charge was designed to defray the cost of curbside service in a dark and dreary economy, but it actually became a profitable business venture for all Others felt 2.
The end result was the same: the skycaps lost a significant amount of their income as tips plummeted. Laws, ch. The skycaps argued Massachusetts law prohibited American from charging the curbside baggage fee because the fee qualified as a service charge under the commonwealth law because it was a fee that a consumer would reasonably expect to be given to the skycap.
American countered that the skycaps suit was preempted by the federal Airline Deregulation Act of When a federal law preempts a state law on an issue, the federal statute has sole jurisdiction, and the state statute is preempted and nullified for purposes of that dispute. The District Court held for American on several grounds, but held for the skycaps on the preemption argument.
Thus, the claims under the Massachusetts tips law and for tortious interference were tried to a jury. Big TippersIt turned out the jury was a bunch of big tippers. The jury found for the skycaps in April and awarded damages in the amount of 2. Thus, the jury awarded the nine prevailing plaintiff skycaps approximately , in damages plus interest and attorney fees. One plaintiff skycap from the St. Louis airport did not get to share in the bounty because--as a citizen of Missouri--he was not covered by the Massachusetts tip law.
But, our story is not over. Cheap tippers can rejoice. American appealed, and the First U. Circuit Court of Appeals handed down a decision bound to make Parisian tourists do a happy dance. American Airlines, Inc. Although the appellate court conceded there was conflicting case law, it relied on three U. Supreme Court cases, Morales v. Trans World Airlines, Inc. Wolens, and Rowe v. New Hampshire Motor Transport Assn, in holding that the federal law preempted the Massachusetts tip statute vis--vis the skycaps tips.
When the Supreme Court invoked the rubric "tenuous, remote, or peripheral", it used as examples limitations on gambling, prostitution, or smoking in public places--state regulation comparatively remote to the transportation function," the court said.
Even if you pay an airline curbside baggage fee, please, folks, tip your skycap. It keeps colonial constables out of our tea, J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI out of our mothers underwear drawers, and seizure-hungry sheriffs out of our Chevys. Yet, as with anything, the Fourth Amendment is not absolute.
The Fourth Amendment prohibits only unreasonable searches. In fact, the Fourth Amendment has a specific clause allowing searches with probable cause. A recent Massachusetts case gets to be our Case of the Week because it addresses the novel legal question: Does the presence of a bong and Baggies constitute probable cause for a search for marijuana? Speeding and SeizingWhen Shawn Smith decided to do some urban drag racing with friends, he probably should have left his bong at home.
For readers who may be unfamiliar with the household appliance known as the bong, it is a water pipe--used by some to smoke marijuana. The speeding Mr. Smith was attempting to outduel a fellow motorist when police clocked him traveling 67 miles per hour in a 40 mile per hour zone. When police stopped the Smithmoblie, they noticed a bong and an open box of plastic sandwich bags in the car. The police testified that, based on their experience, a bong and Baggies usually meant one thing Yes, police thought they were dealing with that plague on humanity: marijuana.
Having spotting the offending bong and Baggies, law enforcement swung into action. Police ordered Mr. Smith from the car, and frisked him. They asked him if there were any marijuana in the car, and he said there was not. Smith admitted he had some herbal enjoyment in his pocket.
Police seized it, arrested Mr. Smith, and impounded his speedy car. Shockingly, they found more marijuana. However, in a development that will be significant legally later in our story, police did not detect any marijuana smoke or residue in the bong. Evidence Up in Smoke? Sure, police get to do an inventory when they seize a car. Smith for his weed, so they got to go through his car and inventory everything.
However, when police misbehave, there is a judicial remedy known as suppression of the evidence. For those who never have time to watch Law and Order, that means the evidence is thrown out because the cops got it illegally. In this case, because the police failed to give Mr. Smith his Miranda warnings before giving him the Spanish Inquisition, Mr. Smith moved to suppress evidence of the search.
However, Massachusetts prosecutors argued the bong and Baggies sitting in the car in plain sight gave the police all the probable cause they needed to search the carMiranda or not. In essence, the Commonwealth argued, it was the probable cause supplied by the bong and Baggiesnot the Mirandaless utterances of Mr. Smith that gave police the pot. Citing Massachusetts case law, the court held that bongs and Baggies--and nothing more--do not give the police probably case for a search.
Dolby from , and Commonwealth v. Correia in It is true the facts in all three cases were somewhat similar: cops stop car, cops see bong, cops arrest driver. However, Smith differed from Dolby and Correia in one, key respect. Unlike in Dolby and Correia, in Smith, there was neither marijuana smoke nor residue present in the bong.
The Appeals Court said that distinction was critical. In Dolby and Correia, the evidence was not suppressed, but it was because there was residue in the bong--not because police spotted an innocent bong just hanging out, minding its own business, with no nefarious residue or smoke. Baggies get the same constitutional protections. Citing its decision in Commonwealth v. Garcia, the court held, the observation of two lawful items--the bong and the box of sandwich bags--did not supply probably cause.
Benign objects such as spoons, mirrors, and straws are often used in the narcotic trade. To allow police officers, experienced in narcotics investigations, to conduct a warrantless search whenever they observe one of the above items, and nothing more, would permit random searches, which are condemned by the Fourth Amendment and the Declaration of Rights," the court said. So, Mr. Smith got off: the evidence was suppressed, and the charges were dropped.
Manmade ChassisDenise Dalien decided she wanted to augment the chassis God gave her, so she consulted plastic surgeon Stanley Jackson of Puyallup, Wash. Jackson performed breast augmentation on Ms. Dalien in , using saline implants. After a diet and exercise regimen caused her to lose weight, Ms. Dalien noticed some indentation and rippling on what was once her soft and supple upper left bosom. Jackson went in again, removed the saline implants, and replaced them with gel implants.
Turns out there was a problem. Dalien was not happy with her new gel bosoms, so under the surgical theory of more is more, Dr. Jackson performed additional revision procedures on Ms. Dalien during and Blinding BungeeJust before all this happened, and--importantly for our story--unbeknownst to Ms. Dalien, Dr. Jackson was having issues with a bungee cord. Jackson went into mortal combat with the killer cord in July The bungee cord won. Jackson received surgery on his eye, and took over a month off from his practice.
In July , Dr. Jackson reported additional changes in his vision. He retired in October after unsuccessful surgery. Citing her allegedly unsuccessful surgeries, Ms. Dalien sued the good doctor twice. In one suit, Ms. Dalien argued negligent medical malpractice in the botched boob job. In her second civil action, Ms.
Dalien argued, among other things, that Dr. Jackson violated the law by failing to disclose his eye injury. Cow Bone LawDr. Jackson argued that the nondisclosure of his eye condition did not occur in trade or commerce and that any alleged professional malpractice or negligence was exempt from the CPA.
Dalien countered that the nondisclosure of the eye condition was, in fact, done in trade or commerce because Dr. Jackson solicited and retained patients by failing to disclose this condition. In siding with Dr. Dental, Inc. Michel needed a bone graft. When completing her pre-procedure paperwork, Ms.
Michel was given the choice of human bone, cow bone, or synthetic bone for her graft. Stating she could not fathom the thought of having animal parts in her body, Ms. Michel declined the opportunity to get authentic cow bone. Well, unfortunately for Ms. Michel, supplies were running low in the dental office that day. When Dr. Mosquera-Lacy ran out of human bone, she finished the job with cow bone. Although the dentist claimed she merely finished up with cow bone--and that cow constituted no more than 10 percent of the graft--Ms.
Michel said she now had a McImplant with the doctor having implanted a cow bone in her mouth. Whatever damages or urges to graze on her front lawn Ms. It does not relate to billing or obtaining and retaining patients. It simply relates to Dr. There is no evidence that cow bone was used to increase profits or the number of patients. When the supply of human bone ran out during the procedure, Dr. Mosquera-Lacy used her judgment and skills as a periodontist to finish the procedure.
This is not actionable under the CPA," the court said. Jackson that Dr. Dalien has presented no evidence that Dr. Jackson represented that he had better vision than his competitors or somehow relied on his vision to promote his business," Judge Russell Hartman wrote for the court. Referencing her other suit, the court said, "To the extent that Dr. Murrow, William F.
Buckley Jr. They argue their show is real journalism, and--in an attempt to avoid producing evidence in a California court proceeding--they say their photographers are journalists. In recognition of this creative legal argument, their case gets to be our Case of the Week.
What is a Journalist? The proliferation of new media sources has created a novel question: Just what is a journalist? Must one possess government-issued press credentials, sending shivers down the spines of First Amendment advocates? How about a requirement that you earn your living from journalism?
Perhaps there should be a requirement that at least your Aunt Betsy actually read what you write? This question has taken on real legal significance as the U. These laws attempt to protect reporters and their confidential sources by shielding confidential information from disclosure to courts and third parties. Although there has been substantial progress, a federal shield law has not yet passed.
However, 40 states and the District of Columbia have shield laws, with many states enacting them after what some argued were Bush administration abuses, prosecutorial attacks on the press, and the prosecution of New York Times reporter Judith Miller. Old Media world? Many hipsters sipping lattes at Starbucks like to bash so-called Old Media.
Silly, Rupert, New Media is for hip kids. But, the beautiful world of blogging Brown alumni opining on global warming and Maya Angelous contributions to literature while their conservative brethren blog on banks and hedge funds may be in for a shock to its modern sensibilities. There may be unwanted guests at this post-modern, online clambake, and it may be a sign of things to come. In Bait Car, the producers work with local police to place an unlocked car with keys in the ignition out on the street.
Its the bait for would-be car thieves. Get it, bait, car? Many unsuspecting citizens, including Joseph Bullard, took the bait. Or did he? In the case of People v. Bullard argued that he was merely being a good citizen, moving the Bait Car out of its illegal parking spot. He also argued selective prosecution. Bullard, a gentleman who enjoys cross-dressing, argued it was no coincidence that the unholy trinity of producers, police, and prosecutors arranged for the Bait Car to be placed outside Divas, a well-known, somewhat risque San Francisco transgendered club.
Police countered that they just picked an area known for car theft. To prove Mr. Not so fast, said KKI. Funny thing. You may have laughed at Mr. Future of Journalism? Dalglish added. People v. The case also illustrates that the cozy little blogging world at Starbucks and beyond is also in the midst of a culture shift.
Yes, the Fourth Estate is becoming a very big tent in every respect imaginable Combine the two - the theory went - and you would have what one of those MBA-types might call, synergy. Activision and Ms. Stefani thought so They also made some money off a game series based on the adventures of skateboarder Tony Hawk.
Band Hero was a similar, spin-off production. In their Agreement, Activision and No Doubt agreed Activision would license only a limited number of No Doubt songs for use in the game. However, that provision failed to consider another potential use of Band Hero. When players reached a certain level of the game, Band Hero allowed them to unlock their avatars, changing their song selection and personal characteristics.
For instance, Activision licensed only a few No Doubt songs, but if Little Johnny were proficient enough in Band Hero to get his avatar -- say, perhaps, a lasciviously alluring Ms. Stefani -- to reach Level Nine of Band Hero, he could unlock her and free her from the bondage of her current condition, in every way, including gender. No Doubt was most displeased to discover that, once your Gwen Stafani avatar were unlocked, not only could Avatar Gwen be singing Janet Jackson, she could also be singing Tito Jackson.
Not surprisingly, Ms. Stefani and her bandmates were not excited about the prospect of having their voices replaced with the manly sounds of Boy George. Ska vs. In No Doubt v. Activision Publg, Inc. The right of publicity gives an individual control over the commercial use of her name or likeness. About half the states have a statutory right of publicity and others protect the right of publicity as part of their right of privacy laws. There has been a movement to extend the right of publicity beyond death.
Not surprisingly, this movement is led by the heirs of some very famous dead people, including the heirs of Marilyn Monroe. California is one of those states with a codified right to publicity, contained in section of the California Civil Code. Gary Saderup, Inc. The appellate court sided with No Doubt and the trial court.
The court ruled that a transgendered avatar did not qualify as a transformative use. Sega of Am. You might think this fight over the name, "Pint," was a beer dispute. Pint of Yellow LiquidThe urinal and its bathroom cousin, the toilet, use a lot of water. As people have become more concerned about the environment, manufactures have joined the party, developing so-called green products, and urinal makers are no exception. After all, no self-respecting urinal manufacturer wants to be known as a truck stop eco-terrorist.
Both Zurn and Sloan wanted to help save the planet by making eco-friendly urinals. Zurn developed a urinal Mother Nature would love and named it, The Pint. The U. Not to be outdone, the nature-loving folks at Sloan came out with their own environmentally sound urinal, the Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System.
Not unlike a fraternity pledge spotting someone swiping his pint of Guinness from the bar, lawyers for Zurn swung into action. Zurn demanded that Sloan stop marketing its allegedly infringing urinal with "pint" in its name. In an apparent attempt to maintain peace and harmony in the urinal world, Sloan changed the name of its urinal from the "Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System" to the "Sloan Pint Urinal System. Simply deleting the numeral, "1," from the name wasnt enough.
They sued. In its case, Zurco, Inc. Sloan Valve Co. Sloan argued that pint was merely an identification of a type of urinal -- one that uses one pint of water when flushed. Thus, Sloan argued, urinal purchasers would associate the term, pint, with the flush volume of the urinal, not the maker of the urinal, Zurn. In attempting to decide the dispute between the fighting flushers, the federal court applied the so-called primary significance test, used in many cases, including A.
Canfield Co. Under the primary significance test, the court determines whether the primary significance of a term in the minds of the consuming public is the product or the producer. The court illustrated the difference by citing E. Browne Drug Co. Cococare Products, Inc. Zurn disputed the generic label by noting that, in the toilet and urinal industry, flush volumes are described -- not in pints -- but with the terms, gallons per flush GPF and liters per flush LPF.
In fact, Zurn claimed the use of gallon and liter by those other wasteful water-hogs in the toilet and urinal industry was precisely why it chose the unique term, pint. However, Sloan countered that pint had become an industry standard, noting that American Standard has used pint and 1 point since , Mansfield Plumbing Products has used 1-pint for its Brevity line of urinals, and Caroma USA had used one pint for its Cube Ultra line of urinals for two years.
Unfortunately for Sloan, the court noted that none of those urinal craftsmen had used the term before Zurn introduced the Pint in In addition, Zurn argued it had been diligent in sending cease and desist letters to the allegedly infringing urinal producers, a requirement for protection under trademark law. To Be ContinuedIn denying motions for summary judgment on most issues, the court held that there were genuine issues of material fact as to whether The Pint was generic.
As a result, the case will move forward, and more evidence about urinals and what people call them can enter the hallowed halls of American jurisprudence. Yes, this week, we go to Massachusetts to bring you the law of chicken head damages. Because she was a full-time employee, she asked her boss, Victor Grillo Jr. Grillo was very happy to give Ms. Cappello the medical coverage she desired, but it seems there was a catch. Grillo said Ms. Cappello could have the medical insurance only if she wore a chicken head mask.
Grillo wrote in an e-mail. Even with major medical and hospitalization coverage for her young daughter on the line, Ms. Cappello declined to don the chicken head, which was part of a complete chicken costume kept in the office. You see, according to court papers, the employees at Cricket Productions considered themselves a fun-loving group that often socialized after hours. Cappello did. Saying she became too depressed to work as a result of the alleged harassment, Ms.
Cappello sought medical attention and claimed she was unable to work. Of course, this is the Case of the Week, so you know what happens next. Colonel Sanders or Jack Daniels? Cappello decided to file a claim for her alleged injuries, and an administrative legal action ensued. Cricket carried no workers compensation coverage, but an administrative law judge held that, because Cricket was doing the business of DTR Advertising, Inc.
Based on the opinion of her psychiatrist, Mark Cutler, Ms. Cappello argued Mr. The administrative law judge agreed and held for Ms. Cappello, but The Hartford appealed, arguing the chicken head incident was not the predominant contributing cause of Ms. Hartford argued there could be other potential causes for the alleged injuries, and -- on appeal to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Industrial Accidents in the case of Cappello v.
DTR Advertising, Inc. Cappello had received previous psychiatric treatment for issues related to a divorce and an alcohol-dependent husband. It was all about that chicken head. Foul fowl? Because of her preoccupation with the perceived harassment at work and her disbelief that she was being asked to do what her employer asked her to do, which she perceived as very humiliating, she has been unable to return to any work for which she is reasonably trained by virtue of her education and job experience, Ms.
In a legal ruling sure to shock the San Diego Chicken, Mardi Gras revelers, and others who actually enjoy wearing chicken head masks, the judges sided with Ms. Cappellos psychiatric issues, the judges ruled Ms. Cappello had shown those problems were not the cause of her present injuries.
Although the judges conceded she had past psychiatric problems, they noted she had not experienced her present symptoms until the chicken head incident. The judges held that Dr. In addition, citing Bouras v. The Massachusetts case of the chicken head was remanded to the lower judge on additional claims Ms. Cappello made, but she was victorious on this day For their efforts on behalf of their client and for furthering the jurisprudence of chicken heads in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the judges awarded Ms.
A episode of Mr. When the infuriated supposed subject came back for more, it ended up in American court, raising the question: could a reasonable viewer take the show seriously, resulting in a judgment for defamation? The friends lost touch over the years, but Ms. Doe followed Mr. Cohen never forgot Ms.
On the Aug. Cohen interviewed the American author, Gore Vidal. Among the topics of conversation were the United States Constitution and the practice of amending it. Cohen asked Mr. Vidal if it were not sometimes better to get rid of something rather than amending it.
As an example, Mr. Cohen referred to Ms. Using her real name and referring to her with a term also used to describe a female dog, he said Ms. Doe was always trying to amend herself by such means as highlighting her hair, adorning herself with tattoos, and shaving her private regions.
Cohen said Ms. Doe denied her relationship with Mr. Cohen was ever romantic or sexual in nature. Given what Mr. Cohen claimed were Ms. Cohen went on to suggest that Mr. Vidal was an internationally famous hairstylist, that euthanasia was a means of exterminating the elderly in Asia, and that Denzel Washington resided at Mount Vernon. Doe was not amused. After complaints from Ms.
Doe, HBO settled with her in for 40, As part of the settlement, HBO agreed to edit the episode so Ms. Well, Ms. Doe in with the same terms as the settlement, except this time Ms. Doe received an additional 50, payday. When a friend of Ms. No more settlements.
Doe decided to take her battle to court. Doe sued HBO and Mr. Cohen in California state court, and later added Channel Four as a defendant. She sued on multiple grounds, including libel, slander, breach of contract, invasion of privacy, and negligent infliction of emotional distress. Channel Four moved for summary judgment -- a legal ruling where one side wins the case before it even gets to trial -- arguing, among other things, that no reasonable person could have understood Mr.
The trial court sided with Channel Four. To the contrary, it is obvious that the Ali G character is absurd and all his statements are gibberish and intended as comedy. The actor, Sacha Baron Cohen, never strays from the Ali G character, who is dressed in a ridiculous outfit and speaks in an exaggerated manner of a rap artist. Channel Four Television Corp. Cohen seriously. Thus, the court held, there was no defamation. Williams did a skit where a wine distributor complained that there was white wine and red wine, but no black wine.
Williams said the so-called black wine was tough enough to be advertised by Mean Joe Green, was black in color, tasted like urine, and went with anything it damn well pleased. The court added that no reasonable person could have taken Mr. Williams seriously and that to hold the skit defamatory would run afoul of the First Amendment. Well, Joyce Henderson may have felt that way before she broke her hip falling before a marketing temple of stacked cantaloupes at her local supermarket.
Adding insult to injury, Ms. District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma grappled with the weighty issue of whether cantaloupes are the legal equivalent of inflatable sharks for premises liability purposes. Cantaloupes of DoomThe story of Henderson v. Harps Food Stores, Inc. Harps employees had created a display of cantaloupes, which was actually a giant octagon of wholesome, fruity goodness.
Harps displayed the cantaloupes in large cardboard containers resting on a wooden pallet. The cardboard containers were roughly square in shape with the corners slightly recessed, forming the muskmelon octagon. Henderson admitted spotting the pallet beneath the pile, and even considered the pesky pallets potential as a pitfall. Nevertheless, she plowed ahead. While examining one of the succulently sweet cantaloupes, Ms.
The stage was now set for Ms. Henderson and Harps to debate the jurisprudence of cantaloupes vis-a-vis inflatable sharks. Henderson sued Harps in Oklahoma state court in a tort action, alleging Harps was negligent in its dangerous display of the killer cantaloupes and in its negligent failure to warn customers of its alleged fruity booby trap.
Harps removed the case to federal court and filed a motion for summary judgment, arguing it was not liable because the exposed cantaloupe pallet was an open and obvious condition. Generally, under Oklahoma premises liability law, which applied even though the case was in federal court, businesses are not liable for damages sustained from these so-called open and obvious conditions. However, there is a possible exception in the law for conditions or defects visible but unseen by a plaintiff.
How the final agreement is formalized, as a legal matter, must properly await the out-come of the negotiations. Finally, the President has directed the Administration to con-sult closely with Congress on these issues. On July 13,, Thomas Graham, Jr.
December U. And the result is pretty darn gloomy reading. For my own part I will also ad Norway. Please read the report yourself and make up your own opinion. Keep your eyes and ears wide open and repport anything suspicious. As currently postured, NATO cannot successfully defend the territory of its most exposed members.
Across multiple plays of the game, Russian forces eliminated or bypassed all resistance and were at the gates of or actually entering Riga, Tallinn, or both, between 36 and 60 hours. After eastern Ukraine, the next most likely targets for an attempted Russian coercion are the Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Like Ukraine, all three spent many years as component republics of the Soviet Union, gaining independence only on its dissolution. The three are also contiguous to Russian territory. This storyline is disturbingly familiar. Unlike Ukraine, the Baltic states are members of NATO, which means that Russian aggression against them would trigger Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty —the collective defense provision according to which an at- tack against any signatory is considered to be an attack against all.
This creates an obligation on the part of the United States and its alliance partners to be prepared to come to the assistance of the Baltic states, should Russia seek to actively and violently destabilize or out-and-out attack them. And we will defend the territorial integrity of every single Ally.
Because the defense of Tallinn and Riga and Vilnius is just as important as the defense of Berlin and Paris and London. Article 5 is crystal clear: An attack on one is an attack on all. We will be here for Latvia. We will be here for Lithuania. You lost your inde- pendence once before. With NATO, you will never lose it again. More than 20 allied divisions were stationed to defend that frontier, with many more plan- ned to flow in as reinforcements before and during any conflict see Figure 1.
They are, however, defended only by the indigenous forces of the three Baltic states, which muster the rough equivalent of a light infantry brigade each. The distances in the theater also favor Russia. From the border to Tallinn along the main highways is about km; depend- ing on the route, the highway versus crow-flight distance to Riga is between about and km.
From the Polish border to Riga, on the other hand, is about km as the crow flies; to Tallinn, almost km. The terrain in the theater is a mix, with large open areas interspersed with forested regions; lakes; and, in some places, sizeable wetlands. Off-road mobility in parts of all three Baltic countries could be difficult, especially for wheeled vehicles.
There is, however, a fairly rob- ust network of roads and highways throughout, and there are few large rivers to serve as natural defensive lines and barriers to move- ment. Our analysis sought to account for the effects on movement and combat of this variability in terrain. Today, it can muster for operations in its Western Military District MD—the region adjacent to the Baltic states—about 22 battalions, roughly the same number of divi- sions forward deployed in the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact countries in These forces appear more than ade- quate, however, to overwhelm whatever defense the Baltic armies might be able to present.
The games employed Russian forces from the Western MD and the Kaliningrad oblast—a chunk of sovereign Russian territory that sits on the northeastern border of Pol- and, along the Baltic Sea coast—totaling approx- imately 27 maneuver battalions in a short-warning attack to occupy either Estonia and Latvia or both and present NATO with a rapid fait accompli. The scenario assumed about a week of warning, which en- abled NATO to flow some reinforcements into the Baltics— mainly light infantry units that could be speed- ily air transported, along with airpower.
Tables 1—4 list the forces with which both sides were credited at D-Day—when the hostilities began. The two sides adopted strategies that were generally similar across the games played. The Red players typically made a main effort toward the Latvian capital of Riga, with a secondary attack that quickly secured the predominantly ethnic Russian areas of northeast Estonia, and then proceeded toward Tallinn.
The outcome was, bluntly, a disaster for NATO. Four factors appeared to contribute most substantially to this result. Indeed, the only armor in the NATO force is the light armor in a single Stryker battalion, which is credited with having deployed from Germany during the crisis buildup prior to the conflict. NATO has no main battle tanks in the field. Even their eight airborne battalions are equipped with light armored vehicles, unlike their U.
Second, Russia also enjoys an overwhelming advantage in tactical and operational fires. The Russian order of battle includes ten artillery battalions. Each Russian brigade or regiment in the Western MD or Kaliningrad was assumed to be able to produce one deployable battalion tactical group for the attack.
This is consistent with the pattern observed in Russian Army operations in Ukraine. The majority of Russian ground forces in Kaliningrad were assumed to be held in reserve for defense of the enclave, and were not available for offensive operations; they are not listed in this table. Deployed from Aviano Air Base, Italy. We allowed some NATO combat aircraft to be based in Sweden, based on discussions with RAND colleagues who have had informal discussions with Swedish defense officials about scenarios similar to this one.
Analytically, this allowed us to explore the possible value of such arrangements. The relative abundance of bases available in Central and Western Europe, especially relative to the size of the deployed force, makes our results relatively insensitive to this assumption, although Swedish basing proved valuable insofar as it allowed NATO combat aircraft access to the battlespace that largely avoided the concentration of modern air defenses located in Kaliningrad.
The leaders and people of the Baltic states, who would need to decide whether to defend their capitals, would confront the first quandary. Quality light forces, like the U. Airborne infantry that the NATO players typically deployed into Riga and Tallinn, can put up stout resistance when dug into urban terrain. But the cost of mounting such a defense to the city and its residents is typically very high, as the residents of Grozny learned at the hands of the Russian Army in — Furthermore, these forces likely could not be resupplied or relieved before being over- whelmed.
The second and larger conundrum would be one for the U. President and the leaders of the other 27 NATO countries. Under the best of circumstances, this would require a fairly prolonged buildup that could stress the cohesion of the alliance and allow Russia opportunities to seek a political reso- lution that left it in possession of its conquests. Even a successful counteroffensive would almost certainly be bloody and costly and would have political consequences that are unforeseeable in advance but could prove dramatic.
Any counteroffensive would also be fraught with severe escalatory risks. If the Crimea experience can be taken as a precedent, Moscow could move rapidly to formally annex the occupied territories to Russia. Finally, it is also unclear how Russia would react to a successful NATO counteroffensive that threatened to decimate the bulk of its armed forces along its western frontier; at what point would tactical defeat in the theater begin to appear like a strategic threat to Russia herself?
The deterrent impact of such a threat draws power from the implicit risk of igniting an escalatory spiral that swiftly reaches the level of nuclear exchanges between the Russian and U. Unfortunately, once deterrence has failed—which would clearly be the case once Russia had crossed the Rubicon of attacking NATO member states—that same risk would tend to greatly undermine its credibility, since it may seem highly unlikely to Moscow that the United States would be willing to exchange New York for Riga.
Coupled with the general direction of U. The third possibility would be to concede, at least for the near to medium term, Russian control of the territory they had occupied. The worst be would be the collapse of NATO itself and the crumbling of the cornerstone of Western security for almost 70 years.
But the cost of mounting such a defense to the city and its residents is typically very high. Avoiding the fait accompli is valuable because it begins to present Russia with the risk of a conventional defeat and thereby is at least the beginning of a more credible deterrent. On the one hand, Russia today looks to its northwest and sees little between its forces and the Baltic Sea but highway and the prospect of forcing NATO into the three-sided corner described above.
Our goal was to devise a posture that would present an alternative landscape: one of a serious war with NATO, with all the dangers and uncertainties such an undertaking would entail, including the likelihood of ultimate defeat at the hands of an alliance that is mater- ially far wealthier and more powerful than Russia.
Not all these forces would need to be forward stationed. Given even a week of warning, NATO should be able to deploy several brigades of light infantry to the Baltics. Soldiers from the U. Army combat aviation assets rotationally based in Germany could self-deploy to provide some mobile antiarmor firepower, but by and large, these fast-arriving forces would be best suited to digging in to defend urban areas.
In our games, the NATO players almost universally chose to employ them in that way in and immediately around Tallinn and Riga. What cannot get there in time are the kinds of armored forces required to engage their Russian counterparts on equal terms, delay their advance, expose them to more frequent and more-effective attacks from air and land-based fires, and subject them to spoiling counterattacks.
Coming from the United States, such units would take, at best, several weeks to arrive, and the U. Army currently has no heavy armor stationed in Europe. At the height of the Cold War, West Germany fielded three active corps of armored and mechanized units; today, its fleet of main battle tanks has shrunk from more than 2, to around The United Kingdom is planning on removing all its permanently stationed forces from Germany by ; currently, only one British brigade headquarters, that of the 20th Armoured Infantry, remains in continental Europe, and the British government is committed to its withdrawal as a cost-saving measure.
Combined arms battalion, the personnel for which would fly in and mate up with the prepositioned equipment of the European Activity Set stored in Grafenwoehr, Germany. Getting this unit into the fight is a complicated process that will not be instantaneous. Breaking out the equipment—24 M-1 main battle tanks, 30 M-2 infantry fighting vehicles, assorted support vehicles—preparing it for movement, transporting it by rail across Poland, offloading it, and roadmarching it forward into the battle area are unlikely to take less than a week to 10 days.
It is critical to emphasize that this relatively modest force is not sufficient to mount a forward defense of the Baltic states or to sustain a defense indefinitely. But it should eliminate the possibility of a quick Russian coup de main against the Baltic states, enhancing deter- rence of overt, opportunistic aggression. There are several options for posturing the necessary heavy forces, each carrying different combinations of economic costs and political and military risks.
For example, NATO could permanently station fully manned and equipped brigades forward in the Baltic states; could preposition the equipment in the Baltics, Poland, or Germany and plan to fly in the soldiers in the early stages of a crisis; could rely on rotational presence; or could employ some combination of these approaches. The next phase of our analysis will explore a range of these options to begin assessing their relative strengths and weaknesses. It is also important to point out that, critical though they are, maneuver brigades are insufficient in and of themselves.
Armor and infantry battalions must be adequately supported with artillery, air defense, logistics, and engineering. Over the past 15 years, the Army has reduced the amount of artillery organic to its divisions and has essentially stripped out all air defense artillery from its maneuver forces. Further, there are presently no fires brigades in Europe able to augment the modest number of guns at the brigade and battalion level.
This is in marked contrast to Russian tables of organization and equipment, which continue to feature substantial organic fires and air defense artillery, as well as numerous independent tube and rocket artillery and surface-to-air missile units.
This disparity has had substantial impacts in our wargames. Armor brigade combat team ABCT to fight what was in essence a covering force action to delay the advance of a major Russian thrust through Latvia. A critical element of such a tactic is the use of fires to cover the maneuver elements as they seek to disengage and move back to their next defensive position. In this case, however, the ABCT was so thoroughly outgunned by the attacking Red force, which was supported by multiple battalions of tube and rocket artillery in addition to that of the battalion tactical groups themselves, that the battalion on one flank of the brigade was overwhelmed and destroyed as it sought to break contact, and the rest were forced to re- treat to avoid the same fate.
The lack of air defenses in U. Maneuver forces showed up in another game, in which two arriving NATO heavy brigades were organized into a counter- attack aimed at the flank of a Russian thrust toward Riga. The absence of short-range air defenses in the U.
Units, and the minimal defenses in the other NATO units, meant that many of these attacks encountered resistance only from NATO combat air patrols, which were overwhelmed by sheer numbers. The result was heavy losses to several Blue battalions and the disruption of the counter- attack. This highlights a critical finding from our analysis: A successful defense of the Baltics will call for a degree of air-ground synergy whose intimacy and sophistication recalls the U.
Against an adversary, such as Russia, that poses multidimensional threats, airpower must be employed from the outset of hostilities to enable land operations, and land power must be leveraged to enable airpower.
Preventing a quick Russian victory in the Baltics would also require a NATO command structure able to plan and execute a complex, fast-moving, highly fluid air-land campaign. What cannot get there in time are the kinds of armored forces required to engage their Russian counterparts on equal terms, delay their advance, expose them to morefrequent and more-effective attacks from air- and land-based fires, and subject them to spoiling counterattacks.
NATO corps that defended the inner German border during the Cold War each possessedadmittedly to different degrees in some cases, the ability to plan for and fight the forces they would command in wartime. Tactical and operational schemes of maneuver were developed and rehearsed; logistics support was planned; the reception, staging, and onward integration of reinforcing forces were laid out and, if never practiced in full, tested to an extent that lent confidence that procedures would work reasonably well when called upon.
Traditionally, the level of planning called for in the initial phase of the defense has been the province of a U. At the height of the Cold War, two Army corps under the operational command of 7th Army had planning responsibilities for Europe; today, none do. The Army should consider standing up a corps headquarters in Europe to take responsibility for the operational and support planning needed to prepare for and execute this complex combined arms campaign, as well as a division headquarters to orchestrate the initial tac- tical fight, to be joined by others as forces flow into Europe.
Today, the West confronts a Russia that has violently disrupted the post—Cold War European security order. Since the early s, the United States and its NATO partners have shaped their forces based on the belief that Europe had become an exporter of security, and for more than two decades that assumption held true. Unfortunately, the usually unspoken accompanying assumption—that the West would see any disruption to that status quo coming far enough in advance to reposture itself to meet any challenge that might emerge—appears to have missed the mark.
The first step to restoring a more-robust deterrent is probably to stop chipping away at the one that exists. If NATO wishes to position itself to honor its collective security commitment to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, its members should first hit the pause button on further steps that reduce its ability to do so. While some ongoing actions may be too far advanced to stop, the United Kingdom and the United States should evaluate whether additional withdrawals of forces from Germany are wise, given the changed circumstances.
These measures need not be limited to strictly military ones. For example, one challenge NATO would face in the event of a Baltic crisis would be moving heavy equipment and supplies from storehouses and ports in Western Europe east to Pol- and and beyond.
A successful defense of the Baltics will call for a degree of air-ground synergy whose intimacy and sophistication recalls the U. Substantial investments may be necessary to facilitate these flows, investments that becau- se they also benefit the civilian economy— may prove more politically palatable than direct expenditures on troops and weapons. But troops and weapons are also needed, and it verg- es on disingenuous for a group of nations as wealthy as NATO to plead poverty as an excuse for not making the marginal investments necessary to field a force adequate at the very least to prevent the disaster of a Russian coup de main.
Army would not be inexpen- sive—the up-front costs for all the equipment for the brigades and associated artillery, air defense, and other enabling units runs on the order of 13 billion. However, much of that gear—especially the expensive Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles—already exists. Some is available due to recent cuts in Army force structure; there is also equipment in long-term storage, and some could be transferred from Reserve Component units, if needed.
So, although there may be some costs to procure, upgrade, or make serviceable existing equipment—as well as to transition units from one type to another—it is likely much less than 13 billion. The annual operating and support costs for three ABCTs plus enabling units—the price tag to own and operate the units—are roughly 2. Aggressive acts, angry—even paranoid— rhetoric, and a moderate but real military buildup combine to signal a situation where it may be less than prudent to allow hope to substitute for strategy.
It is instead due diligence that sends a message to Moscow of serious commitment and one of reassurance to all NATO members and to all U. Allies and partners worldwide. Methodology and Data: The research documented in this report was conducted in a series of wargames conducted between the summer of and early spring Players included RAND analysts and both uniformed and civilian members of various Department of Defense organizations, including the U.
Army, U. Air Force, U. Navy, U. Marine Corps, Joint Staff, U. Army in Europe, and U. RAND developed this map-based tabletop exercise because existing models were ill-suited to represent the many unknowns and uncertainties surrounding a conventional military campaign in the Baltics, where low force-to-space ratios and relatively open terrain meant that maneuver between dispersed forces—rather than pushing and shoving between opposing units arrayed along a linear front—would likely be the dominant mode of combat.
Space Fence in Norway, but will it be to the best of the population who will be caught in the middle? Artwork by Petrofilm. The permit for the use of thermonuclear bombs of type B from Norwegian soil, owned and operated by the Americans, will be a guarantee for Norway, the management believes. Yes, it is a guarantee, but for the collective downfall of the Norwegian people. Norway has around 5. The rest of the population is elderly, sick, children, pregnant, in prisons and in miserable form.
Norway is a peacetime territory, but it is almost impossible to go to war. To that the country is too far, too cumbersome and too sparsely populated, and with a defense that is as good as defeated already. NATO started as a defense alliance but has become an attack alliance that has called in Russia and sees the country as its greatest enemy.
Norway has hung on and gone from being a friendly neighbor to Russia, to becoming an offensive and provocative neighbor. This view is good in theory, but is it wise to risk a global nu- clear melt down because of Tallin and Riga? The games employed Russian forces from the Western MD and the Kaliningrad oblast, a chunk of sovereign Russian territory that sits on the northeastern border of Poland, along the Baltic Sea coast, totaling 27 maneuver battalions in a short-warning attack to occupy either Estonia and Latvia or both and present NATO with a rapid fait accompli.
This view is good, in theory! But is it wise to risk a global nuclear meltdown because of Tallin, Riga and Vilnius? And I think I have Germany with me on this. Today, the situation is the reverse. These weapons, equipped with MK41 launchers, can be used for defensive missions air, land, sea, but also for offensive attacks with nuclear weapons. Senator Dianne Feinstein said of these weapons: "The so-called improvements to this weapon seemed to be designed To make it more usable, to help us fight and win a limited nuclear war.
The vast efforts we deployed in the 20th Centu- ry for war, must be mobilized today for peace and mutual development! Intention to deploy another armour brigade in Eastern Europe? Alexander Grushko: We need to see how these intentions play out.
Presently, US forces are constantly rotated in six Eastern European countries and there are continuous exercises with the participation not only of US but also European contingents. The naval grouping in the Baltic has been reinforced. Storage depots have been set up for equipment used by rotation units during joint exercises with national contingents.
Troop reinforcement infrastructure continues to be upgraded. Military activity in the airspace along our borders has intensified. The number of reconnaissance flights has drastically increased. There is constant talk about increasing the military presence in the Black Sea. This creates a long-term negative trend not only for regional security but also for European security as a whole.
Another problem is that no one knows how far this process will go. It is becoming increasingly obvious that these military preparations have no basis in reality. There is no direct threat either to Poland or to the Baltic countries but the information campaign continues to gather momentum.
Absurd horror stories to the effect that Russia would have attacked the Baltic countries if NATO had not taken measures and deployed its troops in the region continue making the rounds. All indications point to a serious change for the worse in the military situation. We have stated more than once that continuous rotation does not differ in any way from constant deployment.
I should point out, however, that two bases of the European segment of the global missile defence system are under construction. The construction of the facility in Poland is in progress. Alexander Grushko: In no way. There is no collaboration. In April , NATO countries took the decision to halt all collaboration with Russia and all projects were put on hold.
Today, we do not have a positive agenda with NATO. We often hear NATO representatives say they are ready for dialogue. Dialogue through the permanent mission continues. We worked together on Afghanistan. We did a good deal of work in fighting terrorism not only in terms of threat assessment and sharing experience but also in implementing projects designed to rule out tragedies like the one in Brussels.
Alexander Grushko: Formally, the council activity has not been halted. Upon our initiative, it was convened for an emergency meeting in June in connection with the start of a punitive operation by the Kiev authorities in southeastern Ukraine. No meetings have been held since.
Work is underway for the next meeting but no decision has been made yet. Alexander Grushko: The US military buildup is proceeding amid the erosion of the arms control regime in Europe. The CFE regime was the cornerstone of European security. It set ceilings on the main categories of weapon systems and ensured effective information-sharing and an intrusive verification regime. In the early s, it became clear that the treaty did not measure up to the new political realities and adaptation talks began.
It was more in sync with the new realities. In particular, it envisioned specific mechanisms of using political tools in case forces are deployed above the established quota limits. In , Russia ratified the treaty, but NATO countries dragged their feet on the ratification under contrived pretexts.
As a result, it did not come into effect. As the CFE Treaty has lost contact with reality, there is reason to say that the arms control regime in Europe is now dead. This further compounds the security situation. However, this choice was made by the NATO countries themselves. Контактные линзы, Контактные линзы цветные, Контактные линзы магазин, Веб контактные линзы, Контактные линзы веб магазин, Куплю контактные линзы, Контактные линзы приобрести, Контактные линзы отзывы, Контактные линзы acuvue, Линзы контактные стоимость, Однодневные контактные линзы, Линзы, Заказать линзы, Линзы CRAZY, Линзы цветные, Acuvue, Заказ линз, Доставка контактных линз оптом.
Доставка контактных линз Почта Рф. Контактные линзы оптом. Контактные линзы по оптовым ценам. Eguberri on! Весела Коледа! Bon Nadal! Khrisimasi yabwino! Jwaye Nwel! Maligayang Pasko! Nollaig Chridheil! Bo Nadal! Nadolig Llawen! Merry Kirsimeti! Selamat Natal! Buon Natale! Merry Milied! Merry Christmas! Feliz Natal! С Рождеством! God Jul! Next christmas coming soon! And - in fact - I do not look like Father Christmas with my long, white beard. Not at all.
In fact, it is completely the other way around - it is not me who looks like Father Christmas, it is Father Christmas that looks like me!!! And, by the way Welcome to my homepage! I am swedish, born in Gothenburg year , but I live in Denmark - at least most of the time. In winter when Denmark is too cold I normally go south to Portugal or Spain. If you scroll down you can read about politics, space, my life in Portugal, something about me in ten different languages and much more.
I normally live in Denmark, but sometimes here is so cold - so I go south where the food is so much cheaper, and the weather so much better When I went to the Apple Store and asked for an iPhone 7 with internet, facebook and camera the Apple dealer said: -No, sorry - the iPhone 7 is not invented yet - we only sell apples today - but please do take a queue number, and sit down and wait until year ! I have always been a beardy boy - too lazy to use the razor. And the last photos are from Gothenburg.
This photo is from Stora Hamnkanalen great harbour channel in Gothenburg, Sweden year I used a Canon mirror reflex camera and a Codachrome 25 ASA film, and the camera had to stand open and collect light four long hours - now a days you can take a photo like this with a digital camera and an exposure time less than one second. WOW - higher than heaven - I feel like Neil Armstrong - positively the highes point in all Portugal, a PARADISE for a radio amateur - I have friends on Facebook, most of them radio amateurs - this place, with a large antenna on roof, a 3 kW power amplifier and some time on 14 MHz - 20 meter band - I will soon have 20 and not only 2 friends on Facebook, all over the world.
Just have a look - this is me OZ1MAN to the right the strongest european on the twenty meter band - to the left you see my secretary And with a very large home made power amplifier, I will be at least or times larger, stronger and louder! I could hear that somebody was knocking on my door. When I went out, and opended the door - there was nobody there. Of course I got scared - there was no natural explanation. I checked the stairwell, I saw from outside - no light - nobody there - it was jut a few minutes past midnight.
Again - five minutes later - somebody knocked loudly on my door. Again - there was nobody there! Or am I still asleep - is this just a terrible nightmare? Again - five minutes later - again, the ghost knocked on my door. I was scared out of my mind. Again - again - again - ten times, every five minutes, somebody knocked violently on the door - and there was nobody outside the door, or in the stairwell. Finally, I had a look out of my kitchen window - and there he was, the Small Red Hat Woddpecker - hungry, violently knocking his hungry beak in to an old rotten tree - just outside the window - and the sound was EXACTLY the same as somebody knocking firmly on my door.
That was Scary Movies, Hitchkock and panic - I almost shit in my pants! And in a forest - the red army will positively think it is a very heavy machine gun, and run all the way back home to Moscow again! Scary Movies? By one or another strange reason He just did not come and pick me up I am swedish, I am born in Gothenburg at the west coast of Sweden year I have also lived half a year in Morocco, one and a half year in Spain, half a year in Portugal, a year in Norway, a month in Algeria, a month in Italy and so on.
And I have also been an international vagabond for some years - I have been to 66 countries and more than two thousand towns and villages - hitchhiking from town to town, from country to country. If you scroll down you can see my cv - for finding a job - written year when I lived in Portugal, first in portugese - then in english - plus a lot of lincs to my other websites -a list of where I have been - and a history book about my life in swedish.
Peace and horrors in Once upon a time I lived in a vale of tears named Denmark. The winter was so cold that you immediately froze to death if one opened the door to the street, and the summer was so wet that not even an octopus could survive half a second in a Danish forest without drowning. Farts from the winos echoed between the walls of the houses, rabid dogs vomited hysterically on the sidewalks and the stench from millions of pig farms did that not even the flies could not breathe.
And how did I get there? Why did I stay there? It depends, of course, that Sweden was a thousand times worse! And now - when I got tired of Scandinavia - so, Portugal has suffered a long-bearded immigrants from Northern Ice Hell. Portugal is a thousand times better. Portugal has lots of spot virgin forests, lakes with lots of fish, forests and nature with storks, swallows and woodpeckers - things that became extinct in Scandinavia half a century ago.
The weather is like in California, and the food is so cheap that it is almost free - even though it actually tastes good. Nature and food prices is that - so-so about - as in Sweden 50 years ago - before the forest industry and the big bad Inflationary-troll came and destroyed everything. I bite me stuck here in Portugal - poor Portugal has suffered a long-bearded immigrants the poor country never to get rid of with again! I know what is on the other side.
I said I could tell all ateists - and religions - that they are wrong. Black, silent, peaceful, beautiful - the most beautiful black color I had seen - there was nothing but me, or my soul - I was like an astronaute with no body in a universe with no stars.
But I still had all my intelligence and all memories from my life - all my life was like a movie on my inner vision, I had plenty of time - those 8 minutes at the other side was like at least 12 hours - all i could do was to view my memories, think, realise That place was not in my brain - my brain was dead, and a lot of strong waste electricity from the hearth starter was chocking through my dead brain for 8 minutes - enough to make a memory loss, it took me over a year to recover.
I was there, they were not - they can only know it from God - those guys are right, and from now I am a mormon. Willkommen auf meiner Homepage! Und wie kam ich dorthin? Warum habe ich dort bleiben? Portugal ist tausendmal besser. Das Wetter ist wie in Kalifornien, und das Essen ist so billig, dass es fast kostenlos - auch wenn es schmeckt wirklich gut.
Aber ich hatte immer noch alle meine Intelligenz und alleErinnerungen aus meinem Leben - mein ganzes Leben war wie ein Film auf meinem inneren Auge, hatte ich viel Zeit -diese 8 Minuten auf der anderen Seite war wie mindestens 12 Stunden - alles, was ich tun konnte, war, um meineErinnerungen, denken, erkennen Bienvenue sur mon site!
Et comment ai-je y arriver? Pourquoi ai-je y rester? Le Portugal est mille fois mieux. Depende, por supuesto, que Suecia era mil veces peor! Portugal es mil veces mejor. El clima es como en California, y la comida es tan barato que es casi gratis - a pesar de que en realidad sabe bien. Добро пожаловать на мою страницу! Я шведские, я родился в Гетеборге на западном побережьеШвеции года.
Но я живу в Дании - Я переехал из Швеции в Данию году. Не считая того, я жил полгода в Марокко, полтора года вИспании, полгода в Португалии, в год в Норвегии, в месяцв Алжире, месяц в Италии и так дальше. И я также интернациональных бродяг в течение пары лет -я был в 66 государств и наиболее 2-ух тыщ городов и деревень -автостопом из городка в город, из страны в страну.
Ежели вы прокрутите вниз вы сможете узреть мои резюме -для поиска работы - написано в году, когда я жил вПортугалии, поначалу в португальском - то на английскомязыке - плюс много Lincs на остальные мои веб-сайты -Список, где я был - и история книжка о моей жизни вШвеции. Ежели кликнуть на сервисы, которые вы мои книжки по историина британском языке - сделайте клик по ПРО США, и вынайдете наиболее полный перечень, где я был - и сделайте кликна контакт, и вы отыщите мой адресок.
Мир и страхи в году:Давным-давно я жил в юдоли слез имени Дания. Зима была так прохладной, что вы сходу же промерзли, ежели открыл дверь на улицу, и лето было так мокрой, что даже осьминог может выжить полсекунды в Дании лесу без утопления.
Алкогольные пердеть эхом меж стенками домов, обезумевшие собаки вырвало истерически на тротуарах и вонь от миллионов свиноферм сделал, что даже мухи не мог дышать. И как мне туда добраться? Почему я остался там? Это зависит, естественно, что Швеция была в тыщу раз хуже! А сейчас - когда я утомился от Скандинавии - так, Португалия пострадала длиннобородые иммигрантов из Северной Ice ад.
Португалия в тыщу раз лучше. Португалия имеет много пятен девственных лесов, озер с огромным количеством рыбы, леса и природы с аистами, ласточки и дятлы - вещи, которые вымерли в Скандинавии полста лет назад. Погода, как в Калифорнии, и пища так дешево, что это практически безвозмездно - хотя на самом деле вкусно.
Цены на продукты питания и Природа является то, что - так для себя о - как в Швеции 50 лет назад - до лесной индустрии и большой нехороший инфляционной-тролля пришел и разрушил все. Я кусаю меня застрял тут, в Португалии - нехорошее Португалия пострадала длиннобородые иммигрантам бедная страна никогда не избавиться от с снова! Я знаю, что на иной стороне.
Я произнес, что могу огласить, все атеисты - и религий - эточто они не правы. Опосля того как я не погиб в машине скорой помощи сердечко мертв, не ЭКГ, не ЭЭГ, не так дыхание,временно мозг мертв 8 мин Я пробудился в другом месте. Темный, тихий, мирный, прекрасный -Самая прекрасная темный цвет я лицезрел - не было ничего, не считая меня, либо мою душу - я был, какастронавт без тела во Вселенной, без каких-то звезд.
Но я все еще были мой интеллект и всевоспоминания из моей жизни - я всю жизнь был, как в кино на моем внутреннем видении, у меня было много времени -эти 8 минут на иной стороне было как минимум 12 часов - все, что я мог сделать, это поглядеть моивоспоминания, мыслить, осознавать, Это место не было в моем мозгу - мой мозг был мертв, и много мощных электроэнергии отходов отОчаг стартер шокирует через мой мертвый мозг в течение 8 минут - довольно, чтоб сделать памятьпотеря, он взял меня за год на восстановление.
Три года спустя я отыскать конкретно то же самое место - в Книжке Мормона! Я был там, они былинет - они могут лишь знать его от Бога - эти ребята правы, и сейчас я мормон. YA znayu, chto na drugoy storone. Posle togo kak ya ne umer v mashine skoroy pomoshchi serdtse mertv, ne EKG, ne EEG, ne tak dykhaniye,vremenno mozg mertv 8 min YA prosnulsya v drugom meste. Chernyy, tikhiy, mirnyy, krasivyy -Samaya krasivaya chernyy tsvet ya videl - ne bylo nichego, krome menya, ili moyu dushu - ya byl, kakastronavt bez tela vo Vselennoy, bez kakikh-libo zvezd.
Tri goda spustya ya nayti imenno to zhe samoye mesto - v Knige Mormona! Velkommen til min hjemmeside! Fred og grusomheter i Det var en gang jeg bodde i en jammerdal heter Danmark. Og hvordan gjorde jeg kommer dit? Hvorfor skulle jeg bo der? Det avhenger selvsagt at Sverige var tusen ganger verre! Portugal er tusen ganger bedre.
Jeg sa jeg kunne fortelle alle ateister - og religioner - somde er feil. Svart, stille, fredelig, vakkert -vakreste svart farge jeg hadde sett - det var noe annet enn meg, eller min sjel - Jeg var som enastronaut uten kropp i et univers uten stjerner. Og hvordan kom jeg til at rejse derhen? Hvorfor ville jeg bo der? Portugal er tusind gange bedre. Jeg var der, de varikke - de kan kun kender det fra Gud - de fyre har ret, og fra nu er jeg en mormon. Ingen leiligheter, var ingen hus til salgs. Ikke en eneste taksi-bil i sikte.
Jeg er ikke en idiot. Men hvem er dum, egentlig? Jej eller idioter i parlamentet? En leilighet er faktisk verdens mye mer enn hele Joakim von And dollar-tank! Og - det er ikke jeg som er gal, er det statsministeren som har glemt sine hjerneceller tilbake i skuffen!
Jag eller idioterna i Stortinget? Qualquer tipo de trabalho vai ficar bem. Muito obrigado antecipadamente! I was born in Gothenburg, Sweden in the year - april - By education I am a nurse, and an electronics engineer - I have been eight years to technical schools - four years at The Polhem Collage downtown Gothenburg, and four years at the technical school in Viborg, the old capital of Denmark.
I have worked many years in agriculture - an engineer is a nothing-maker, too many electronics engineers were educated - and I have worked in restaurangs, hospitals, as an electrician, at furniture factories and at fishing ships in Scandinavia, and I have also worked at farms in Spain, Italy, Morocco and Algeria.
I have quit my flat in Denmark, Scandinavia and have no intention what so ever to return - it is too goddam cold up there! So - in fact - I have planned to stay here in Portugal forever. And I do need to find a job - a work - any type of work - as soon as possible. Any type of job will be fine.
I can speak swedish, norwegian, danish, english, german, russian, spanish and arabic - but no portugese. I do have a driving license - for cars up to three and a half tons of weight - and I am single. Thanks a lot in advance!
My country og birth - Sweden a small country in Scandinavia, north of Germany is a member of The European Union - so I have the same rights here as a portugese citizen cause my citizenship is swedish. The beardy pipe smoker in wonderful Santiago. Contact Us Today sales boatntackle.
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A lot going on, in a small space! Dual hook spinnerbait with four blades. Versions For custom colors, email us below: bnt2x4 boatntackle. Size above Models available in 1 oz. Custom colors and sizes available for custom order, email us below: custom boatntackle. Want it painted another color? Email us for details: custom boatntackle. Do you want a lure you already own, changed or rebuilt? Do you have a favorite lure color that you want built on another type of lure?
Let us build a custom lure for you! A Double Bladed Add On for your lures. Gets the hook away from the main body of the lure for better hook up and for short strikes. Available for custom order on our custom bucktails in different lengths away from the main wire! Ball bearing swivel,. Prices dependant on condition and resaleability Contact us at: sales boatntackle. Some spend All Hallows recovering from the revelry of the night before, and some are still on the streets in the wee hours of the holy day.
Our Case of the Week examines once such alleged citizen on the streets and the unfortunate lesson she learned about differing standards of legal review in a California appellate decision handed down last week.
In a deal that would come back to haunt her on the day after Halloween, she made a plea bargain in one of the cases. Under the plea agreement, Ms. Bongiovanni pleaded no contest, and was placed on probation for three years. As an added bonus, her day jail sentence was suspended to run concurrently with the sentence from her other drug bust. It seemed like a good deal at the time, and it would have been All Hallows HijinksOn Nov.
Perhaps not unlike Chauncey and Wadsworth fighting over tee times, the proper procedure for shaking martinis, or the best way to train a polo pony, Ms. After taking her children trick-or-treating on Halloween evening, Ms. Diaz ventured outside at approximately in the morning of All Hallows to look for a friend parking on the street.
Instead, Ms. Diaz said she saw Ms. Bongiovanni accompanied by a companion in a pumpkin costume. According to Ms. Diaz, Ms. Bongiovanni proceeded to engage in an expletive-laden tirade of threats. To accommodate the gentle readers of Courtweek. Diaz said Ms. Bongiovanni approached her and called her an [expletive deleted] snitcher, adding, "You been [expletive deleted] snitching.
Bongiovanni stated allegedly, as she is said to have added for emphasis, "You [expletive deleted] rata," and "[expletive deleted] all biccicletas. In addition, "rata" can refer to a Soviet fighter plane from the s, plants from the Metrosideros genus in New Zealand, or rat in Spanish.
Bongiovanni might have meant. Also, biccicletas is a derivation of the Spanish word for bicycles. Seems innocuous enough. However, in Ms. Diaz reported the incident to police the same day and gave law enforcement a description of the woman who threatened her. She then identified Ms.
Bongiovanni from a photo line up. Police knew Ms. Bongiovanni to be a member of the Columbus Street gang for almost a decade and that she went by the gang name, "Diabla. Bongiovanni sported Columbus Street gang tattoos on her body.
Winning ? However, nifty tattoos notwithstanding, Ms. Bongiovanni denied she was a member of the gang at trial. In addition, Ms. Bongiovanni noted she was approximately 50 pounds heavier than Ms. Diaz had described her. Then again, it was Halloween, and with her friend in that pumpkin costume, she probably got a lot of candy. Despite Ms. So, it was time for Ms. Bongiovanni to do the happy dance.
Sure, she was on probation, but the charges were dropped. No probation violation there At an ensuing probation violation hearing, Ms. Bongiovanni argued she had not violated her probation in the All Hallows morning incident. More importantly, for purposes of sending Ms. You see, California probation violation determinations differ from a criminal trial in that the fact-finder in a probation violation hearing is the judge -- not a jury.
In addition, where in a criminal trial, the legal standard is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, in a probation violation hearing, the standard is only a preponderance of the evidence. In Ms. Diaz identified Ms. Bongiovanni as the woman who threatened her.
Bongiovanni had her probation revoked, and it was three years of incarceration for her. He fought to save the Constitution Big Fun in a Little PackageDavid Flood is a gentleman of somewhat small stature: three foot two, to be exact. You see, for a fee, you could bring Dave the Dwarf to your birthday party, St. Dwarf tossing was a cultural phenomenon in the s. It was the biggest thing since Members Only jackets. It seemed a good time was being had by all, as tiny torpedoes of humanity went airborne at parties.
That was, until the Little People of America and their friends in the Florida Legislature intercepted the toss. Little LobbyistsNot everyone was amused by this zany brand of miniature fun. Among the concerned populace was a public interest organization known as Little People of America, Inc. The non-profit organization provides support and information to people of short stature, and states it is the only dwarfism support organization providing services to those afflicted with all of the over types of dwarfism.
Little People and others lobbied the Florida Legislature, and the result was the passage of Section Not all little people supported the law, and one of them was Dave the Dwarf. Dave the Dwarf sued then-Florida Governor Job Bush in an attempt to overturn the law, arguing the law was an unconstitutional violation of his rights under the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Specifically, Dave the Dwarf argued in Flood v. Bush, No. Filed Nov. He argued also that the law violated his equal protection rights because the law treated him differently than others. For instance, you could be tossed, I could be tossed, and Oprah Winfrey could be tossed with a great degree of difficulty, but Dave the Dwarf could not be tossed Banned or Not? They argued dwarfs needed protection. Dave counted that was hogwash. Also, in addition to maintaining Gov.
Turns out they were right. The law itself banned only "undertaking or permitting any contest or promotion or other form of recreational activity involving exploitation endangering the health, safety, and welfare of any person with dwarfism" in establishments selling alcoholic beverages. Nowhere did the law ban dwarf tossing specifically. Dave the Dwarf argued dwarf tossing was good for his welfare because he made money doing it. Note the language is "health, safety, and welfare," as opposed to "health, safety, or welfare.
As it was, the trial court tossed Dave out of the courthouse, holding the law did not ban dwarf tossing and that -- although the law mandated that the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of Floridas Department of Professional Regulation promulgate regulations on the issue -- they had failed to do it.
While the regulators may have been out at the beach listening to Jimmy Buffet tunes and drinking margaritas, Dave the Dwarf could have been spending his days flying through the warm Florida breezes. So why is Florida State Rep. Ritch Workman trying to repeal the law while everyone from Jon Stewart to your short Uncle Freddy is weighing in on the issue?
Well, it appears those regulators finally finished getting wasted away in Margaritaville, cruised on back home to Tallahassee, and did some regulating. The regulation provided in subsection 2: "Any activity described as dwarf-tossing is specifically included within those acts of exploitation prohibited by this rule.
It provided: "Nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit dwarfs from engaging in non-exploitative sporting or recreational events of the type engaged in by persons who are not dwarfs. Workman has his way. His bill, HB , is pending in the Florida Legislature. You would be wrong. This week, mighty corporate litigants have been battling it out in the U. District Court for Northern District of Illinois in a wacky wiener war.
Американские импланты. Импланты Nobel Biocare Нобель. Имплантация Bicon Байкон. Имплантация BioHorizons Биогоризонт. Германские импланты. Имплантация Ankylos Анкилоз. Имплантация XiVE Ксайв. Имплантация Impro Импро. Восстановление всех зубов на имплантах.
Имплантация All-On Имплантация All-On-4 Все на 4-х. Имплантация All-On-6 Все на 6-ти. Комплексная имплантация всех зубов. Протезирование на имплантах. Мост на имплантах. Балочный протез. Шаровидный протез на имплантах. Протез на локаторах. Временная коронка на имплант. Циркониевая коронка на имплант. Кнопочный протез на имплантах. Съемные протезы. Иммедиат-протез «Бабочка».
Пластиночные зубные протезы. Ремонт зубных протезов. Протез Акри Фри Acry Free. Квадротти Quattro Ti. Коронки и мосты. Золотые коронки. Зубной мост мостовидный протез. Керамокомпозитные коронки. Микропротезирование зубов. Зубной штифт. Культевая вкладка. Глиняная вкладка. Композитная вкладка. Удаление зубов. Удаление зуба мудрости. Удаление ретинированного зуба. Удаление 2-ух зубов. Сложное удаление зуба. Удаление дистопированного зуба. Хирургические операции. Пластика уздечки губки. Пластика уздечки языка.
Резекция верхушки корня зуба. Удаление кисты зуба. Пластика десны. Исцеление альвеолита. Удаление гранулемы. Исцеление свища. Установка брекетов. Сапфировые брекеты. Глиняние брекеты. Брекеты Damon. Пластмассовые брекеты. Брекеты Incognito. Железные лигатурные брекеты.
Выравнивание зубов капами. Прозрачные капы. Пластинки для выравнивания зубов. Каппы Invisalign. Трейнеры для зубов. Отбеливание зубов. Лазерное отбеливание зубов. Отбеливание зубов ZOOM 3. Отбеливание зубов ZOOM 4. Отбеливание зубов Amazing White. Домашнее отбеливание. Капы для отбеливания. Циркониевые виниры. Реставрация зубов. Пломбирование части зуба. Исцеление зубов. Исцеление кисты зуба.
Исцеление периодонтита. Перелечивание каналов. Гигиена зубов. Air Flow Эйр Флоу. Ультразвуковая очистка. Исцеление десен. Исцеление гингивита. Исцеление пародонтита. Решили мне их оперативно, поочередно и с минимальными последствиями. Отдельная благодарность Гурину Андрею Анатольевичу. Чрезвычайно боялась вставлять имплантат, но он меня так отвлекал своими дискуссиями, что я и опомниться не успела, как прошла операция и я побежала домой счастливая : Я работаю в ночную смену и деньком сплю соответственно.
Чрезвычайно приятно, что на ресепшене помнят о этом и звонят лишь вечером! Ваша заявка на подготовительную запись принята и будет рассмотрена нашим спецом в кратчайщие сроки. О сети клиник Технологии Видео о поликлинике Документы. Акции и анонсы. Наши цены. Сервисы стоматологии. Ответы на вопросцы. Записаться на прием.
Расписание докторов. Заполнить анкету пациента. Имплантация зубов Записаться на консультацию. Ваша заявка принята! В первый раз у нас? Запишитесь на консультацию. Применение навигационных технологий Применение навигационных технологий Навигационная разработка в собственной базе имеет виртуальное планирование, обеспечивающее высшую точность имплантации. Навигационная разработка имеет множество преимуществ: Составление подробного плана. Предварительно проводится обследование ротовой полости пациента, составляется план исцеления, который учитывает анатомические индивидуальности челюсти пациента, его пожелания.
Визуализация грядущего исцеления. Доктор может показать пациенту индивидуальности выполняемых процедур, смоделировать модель челюсти опосля проведенного исцеления. Протез, который будет установлен на импланте, можно сделать уже на шаге работы доктора. Это помогает уменьшить восстановительный период и обеспечивает хороший эстетический эффект. Синуслифтинг открытый, без учета костного материала. Удаление доброкачественных новообразований кожи с элементами пластики дефектов. Удаление костных доброкачественных новообразований с альвеолярных отростков челюстей.
Цистэктомия при радикулярных кистах. Забор костного аутотрансплантата из подбородка, из ветки челюсти, и его фиксация. Сандвич пластика альвеолярной кости. Спецы Евгений Сергеевич Сульгин. Евгений Сергеевич Сульгин Cтоматолог-хирург, имплантолог.
Такие работы выполняются с опорой на импланты, которые в свою очередь популярны в Фотографии фрезерованного каркаса из CoCr на имплантатах Mis C1. Ставрополь, Старый Оскол, Стерлитамак, Сургут, Тольятти, Томск, Тюмень, Уфа, Ханты-Мансийск,. Чебоксары, Челябинск, Чистополь, Чита. канал мис катя edem-room- автомойка томск сосновый бов деревянная мебель своими руками фото импланты roott где можно делать посты.