Пластика уздечки языка Томск Степная 1-я
Пластика уздечки языка Томск

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Пластика уздечки языка Томск Степная 1-я Металлические брекеты Томск Богашевский

Пластика уздечки языка Томск Степная 1-я

In general, Sanskrit does so more rigorously than Iranian. As we see, the pace and direction of generalization is dificult to foretell. At best, the traces of the original distri- bution can be found in isolated formations. The order is al- phabetic. If not indicated otherwise, the forms are attested in the RV. The IE etymology is unclear the best candidates are Av. The palatalization is regular only in the aorist and in some nominal for- mations Skt.

The reason for generalizing the palatalized variant may have been the urge to avoid homonymy with another root cf. As far as the further IE cognates are concerned, we have two possibilities, which are probably not mutually exclusive. On the one side, we may compare Skt.

He states that this word is of PIIr. If we assume, however, that Skt. The IIr. It is plausible to assume that two Ilr. It is unattractive to separate the word families of Skt. Further etymological connections are uncertain. The reconstruc- tion of the PIE form is dificult.

At any rate, Gr. В skiyo and Alb. Full grade of the root has been generalized in PIIr. The palatalization in Indo-Iranian may have originated in the zero grade forms. The etymology is uncertain. There are hardly any forms attested where palatalization of the initial cluster could arise.

Since the etymology is uncertain, however, no conclusions can be drawn from this fact. In Avestan, initial sc- is found in — GAv. Evaluation of the initial sequences The distribution of PIIr. On the other hand, relexes of PIIr. In order to analyze the evidence in proper perspective, it is essential to take two points into consideration. First of all, the sufix is thematic. However, Indo-Iranian has generalized the palatal- ized variant in thematic presents cf.

Secondly, the sufix is not productive in Sanskrit. OHG wunsk. We ind no parallels in other IE languages for only two etymologically un- clear roots, viz. SharMa l with references. In Iranian, sk-presents became productive in the inchoative function see KellenS ff. Reviewing the evidence, we see that, from a synchronic point of view, the sufix of old sk-presents only appears in postvocalic position We may now ask ourselves the question as to whether sk-presents could be formed in PIIr.

The whole issue depends on the interpretation of several Indo- Iranian roots containing awkward consonant clusters, which have been explained as original sk-presents. Mayrhofer follows an old connection with Gr. This last point cannot be correct. In Sanskrit, -nа-adjectives are generally late, replacing those in -ta- AiGr. For a recent discussion of this root and present see hintze f.

In view of the status of the texts where frasiiazjaiieiti is found, it seems more likely that this form is a corruption for xfrasiiazdaiieiti, a causative to siiazd-. The substantive sraska- V 1. As we can see, all sk-presents derived from roots in a stop show a different relex, viz. The presented material is of uneven etymological value, but it provides a clear pattern. This becomes even more evident if we consider Sanskrit adverbs of a similar structure, viz.

This obvious parallel could not be seriously considered earlier because Skt. Let us look at these adverbs more closely. Theo- retically speaking, we do not need an -s- for the Proto-Indo-Iranian reconstruc- tion of this group of words, since Sanskrit is ambiguous, and for Avestan we may surmise that e. If, however, we assume that all these adverbs are formed in the same fashion, the -s- in PIIr.

Grassmann s. Mayrhofer EWAia I: The etymon of this group can hardly be separated from Lat. Finally, Skt. We arrive at the following PIIr. Accordingly, we can inally substantiate the old idea that all these adverbs are formed in an identical way. A thorough discussion of the IE antecedents of this formation goes beyond the scope of the present publication, so I shall limit myself to a short remark. The consistently long vowel of IIr. The initial a- of Skt. The traditional analysis, which derives Skt.

I would not know of any other old example of an IE nominal derivative containing a present tense sufix. Note further that LAv. Balto-Slavic shows a similar formation. In view of ORuss. In Av. Further, we ind unclear Skt. Otherwise, Skt. Phonetic details of the sound change PIIr. The interpretation of PIIr.

In Avestan, we ind LAv. There are even reasons to believe that RUKI was not operative in a strongly palatal environment, cf. If we now apply the proposed phonetic values to our rule, we get PIIr. The further development of PIIr. Before we analyse the development of PIIr. The same development is found in compounds, e.

The other cases e. Therefore, I here give a short sketch of the situation in the oldest Vedic texts, which is based on an electronic search AV The same is valid for the AVP O 1. The text of the TS does not contain these junctures outside RV-ic repe- titions where the sandhi is applied. No examples of the other junc- tures are found. At any rate, we must reckon with generaliza- tions on a large scale, so that it is dificult to get a clear picture of the original situation.

Phonetically, un- voiced fricatives can be described as air-stream combined with friction in the mouth cavity. Since voiceless h is nothing but air-stream with slight narrowing of the larynx, unvoiced fricatives often turn into h cf. This account of the prehistory of Skt. Leumann p. Development of PIIr. The develop- ment Ir. For the irst time we are in a position to explain the relationship between the Skt.

Many scholars toyed with the idea that these roots are etymologically related cf. Mayrhofer EWAia: with references , but up till now this suggestion was considered phonetically impossible. Presum- ably, both roots preserved their «s-mobileness», as it were, i. Special cases II: Skt. As is well known, the root structure T Dh was not tolerated in PIE, whereas s T Dh is abundantly attested Meillet , Therefore, we must reconstruct an initial s- or s-mobile for Skt. This concerns the following roots Mayrhofer rejects the connection, assuming with Grassmann that the original meaning of Skt.

To this root there are a few nominal derivatives, viz. The question is whether these two meanings are compatible. As to Skt. These two roots are different enlargements of the PIIr. No certain cog- nates of this root have been found outside IIr. The connection with Russ. Furthermore, it is only attested in the South- ern and Western dialects, i.

In Br. MS 11,9,5: Geldner put «stolzierende» with a question mark in his text. The IE etymology is unclear but cf. The irst three steps are dis- cussed above. Our handbooks cf. Even within the framework of the traditional theory, where Skt. Conclusions 1. In this way, the presents Skt. Also the adverbs Skt. The desaspiration of Skt. For the same correspondence between Lith. The Slavic forms show the relex of initial k-, without s-mobile.

Another possible instance of secondary s- in Germanic is Skt. The phonetic realization of PIIr. I will also keep the traditional labels PIIr. I: Possibly, causatives like Av. Difi- cult to assess are y. On the other hand, OIr. Connection with Gr. For Russ. The connection with Lat. In Skt. And some require the same conversion after every mute save m».

II, 2: It is unclear whether Skt. Kortlandt, R. Beekes, P. Schrijver, J. Cheung and M. Band I. Band 11,2. Nominalsufixe, ed. Deb- runner, Stang on the occasion of his seventieth birthday 15 March , ed. Stockholm, Bartholomae, C. Strassburg, Bloomfield, M. Brugmann, К. I-II2, Strassburg. Petersburg — Moscow, Amsterdam — Atlanta. In- vestigations philologicae et comparativas Gs. Kronasser , ed. Wiesbaden, Heidelberg, Die Sprache 34, Cambridge, Mass. Iran and Islam, in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, ed.

Edinburgh, Wi- esbaden. KZ 79, MSS 19, MSS, Die Sprache 20, Band 1, ed. Band 2, ed. In collaboration with J. Elfenbein and P. Kellens, J. MSS 34, Klingenschmitt, G. Edition und Kommentar. Dissertation Erlangen.

Kortlandt, F. Recent de- velopments in historical phonology, ed. The Hague, Annual of Armenian Linguistics 12, Journal of Indo-European Stud- ies 22, Kuiper, F. Acta Orientalia 12, Acta Orientalia 17, IIJ 9, Lubotsky, M. Oort and M. Kurylowicz, J.

Leiden, IF 58, , IIJ 25, Leiden, etc. Sound Law and Analogy. Papers in honor of Robert S. Beekes on the occasion of his 60th birthday, ed. Amsterdam — Atlanta, Studia Indogermanica Lodziensia FS. Danka 2, MSL 8, MSL 18, MSS 14, Band 1, edd.

Albino, M. Studia Indo-Iranica. Geiger, ed. Leipzig, I: Metrische und textgeschichtliche Pro- legomena. In memoriam Kr. Sandfeld, edd. Moscow, PW: О. Petersburg, Paris, The Hague-Paris, Bloomields Vedic Concordance. Up- psala. Text, trans- lation and notes.

New Haven. Reprint: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Studies, Vol. XX, Varanasi Indoarisch, Iranisch und die Indo- germanistik, edd. Forssman, R. KZ 31, Introduction In this paper I shall discuss a special kind of aspect, the so-called progres- sive appearing in certain Iranian languages. In this frame of reference progres- sive means an aspectual nuance of the imperfective in its opposition to the per- fective, as they are used in Slavonic languages and as they are deined by Comrie Imperfective aspect shows the situation from inside with its internal temporal constituency.

Thus the imperfec- tive-perfective distinction is not necessarily an objective difference, but rather a different way of looking at the same situation comrie Consequently, when treating the aspect the most important questions are: — which grammatical categories do exist in the given language; — which are the semantic distinctions underlying these categories; — what kind of facts might inluence the choice of aspectual forms. Further there is a question of how these underlying semantic distinctions can be detected in historical texts, which are limited in quantity and quality.

The historical reconstructions of grammatical levels differ from each other in this respect. In the case of phonology the material differences between two or more different stages of a given language can be described mainly by binary op- positions and the reconstruction of morphology mostly follows the reconstruc- tion of phonology schlerath Regarding syntax and semantics the changes of the grammatical categories and of the underlying semantic systems are less obvious and, consequently, the reconstructions are more «theoretical» and arbitrary.

The traditional way of reconstructing syntactic and semantic patterns is to analyze the inventory of morphology. However, this can be misleading since morphology often represents the system of an earlier period. I will restrict my attention to the aspect, as expressed only by periphrasis, with reference to the verbal morphology, adverbs, non-inite and locative expressions excluded.

The languages and dialects to be investigated are: Modern Persian with its closest dialectal variants and relatives, Western Iranian dialects with occasional reference to some Eastern Iranian dia- lects and, inally, the diachronic variants of Modern, Classical and Middle Per- sian.

Modern Persian In Modern Persian the formal expression of the distinction between per- fective and imperfective is restricted to the past tense kard-mikard. This is a well-known fact. In many languages more differences can be expressed in the past then in other tenses.

Here imperfectivity is expressed by a verbal preix used already in earlier periods in the same function. In Modern Persian, however, its aspectual function is restricted to the past tense and when this preix combines with the present-tense forms, it simply indicates indicative. Moreover, in the informal register there is a periphrastic construction with progressive meaning1.

The use of this periphrastic progressive is restricted in several ways, name- ly stylistically: its use is optional, it is a hallmark of colloquial style; syntacti- cally: it can be used only in indicative mood and in afirmative sentences; lexi- cally: verbs form two disjoint sets according to their inherent aspectual proper- ties, namely those which can appear in the progressive and those which cannot do it.

It follows that, on the one hand, the progressive can be combined with another, quite different, category: the perfect. On the other hand, the perfect forms, according to their lexical choice, can convey double function, the resulta- tive and the progressive. Thus we have to extend the scope of one investigation to yet another aspect, namely to the perfect3. In fact, it is a semantically complex category of fairly wide applicability expressing different aspectual features of resultative character.

These forms, he says, have been developing a new aspectual meaning, viz. This new aspectual value with different nuances has been derived from the original resultative meaning of perfect by recognizable processes lazard They seem to be used in every register of Modern Persian. To sum up: the morphological paradigm of Modern Persian in itself does not entirely reveal all the kinds of semantic distinction and stylistic usage which the verb forms cover. The meaning and the form of verbal phrases are highly determined by various factors, e.

At the same time these variations raise the question whether they represent the ongoing changes of the language or whether they are relicts of previous time, i. Or, to put it differently: do so- cially used variations represent dialectal or diachronic variants of the same lan- guage? In the following I will try to answer this question by considering the dia- lectal evidence irst and the facts of history next.

However, this summary is bound to be incomplete. Except for certain descriptions of individual dialects e. This means that the dialects are described by means of obsolete categories and under a strong inluence of Formal Persian Classical and Modern.

Thus the al- leged presence or absence of a given category often depends on the techniques used by the given linguist and, consequently, the descriptions are mostly artii- cially uniform6. Tajik The periphrastic progressive is most prominent in Tajik where it occurs throughout the whole verbal paradigm. This paradigm, in an idealized full sys- tem at least, is very rich in various aspectual forms.

The Tajik progressive has no sty- listic value at least not in the sense in which the Modern Persian one has it and is not restricted syntactically7. Moreover, the full forms occur only in the literary written style, while Tajik dialects use only the contracted forms zaruBin ; lazard ; raStorgueVa The techniques of contraction differ across dialects, but remain mostly invariant within each dia- lect. Dari The other Persian-type language, Dari, is half-way between Persian and Tajik as far as its use of the analytic progressive is concerned.

The rest of the Western New Iranian dialects The verbal preix occurs in nearly all the dialects except the Caspian-dia- lects. It seems to be the oldest and the most widespread grammatical device to express imperfective meaning or aspectual nuance in general. Although the pre- ixes and constructions can be materially different9, functionally they are nearly the same.

The periphrastic constructions, like those in Modern Persian and Tajik, serve to convey aspectual values. Here not only the auxiliary is the same as in Persian, but also the techniques of the auxiliation are nearly the same These may be either two-word forms, derivational or inlectional sufixes or else enclitics etymologically related to the auxiliary.

Theoretically it seems to be unjustiied to combine the periphrasis with its etymological equivalents in a synchronic description. Tajik dialectology, however, justiies this method. Here the periphrasis and its derivatives represent different stylistic and geographic variants of the same synchronic system.

In this group the Fars-dialects and Lari call for some explanation. In the verbal paradigm Kerimova gives three series of perfect forms, each based on the PP of the main verb The second and the third series encompass the transitive verbs. This is obvious from the stress indicated. It is well-known from colloquial Persian and other spoken dialects that these forms vary only in the stress placement and so they are usu- ally predisposed to be contracted Consequently, there are doublets in all the perfect tenses: perfect transitive, perfect intransitive and pluperfect.

Mann calls forms contain- ing this element perfectum secundum and identiies them with the Classical Per- sian perfectum secundum. In the fourth dialect recorded by Mann this text is missing and so we quote another example instead. In this respect the dialects a , b , d represent the same usage, but c does not: in Papuni this form is never used. Therefore the occurence of this form in the Fars- dialects seems to be a dialectal element with the same or nearly the same mean- ing as that of the perfect forms.

As for the way of contraction, some of them are very close to Tajik dialect forms karsos, karsode, kar da is todas; zaruBin , but there is a distinct difference of their functions: perfect or pluperfect in the Fars- dialects and progressive in Tajik.

Historical evidence In early New Persian the imperfective continuous, progressive, iterative, etc. Perfect forms in it are apparently fully developed. Let us quote some examples showing how the aspectual nuances could be expressed in the past tense.

In these examples [a] clearly contrasts with [b], and [c] with [d]. The latter group distinctly expresses the continuing relevance of a past situation for the present one. There is also an aspectual difference between l - 2 and 4 - 5 , since the verbal preix or proverb? As for the groups [b], [c] and [d]: the difference between [b] and [d] is clearly that of tense, irrespective of the example being correct or not.

The question now is whether there is any aspec- tual or any other difference between [b] and [c]. In fact it is the problem of the form traditionally called perfectum secundum. It is generally agreed upon that this formation in New Persian is a neolo- gism explainable etymologically either as an extension of the 3rd sing. This new form appears from time to time, although not very frequently, in early prose Lazard and in a special register of early poetry.

As Bold- yrev observes, it is mostly used in less formal or less solemn style, usu- ally in the irst and second persons, and always with an emphatic intonation. Boldyrev says that it has a deinite stylistic value and only this in early poetry. In this tafsir I could ind no signiicant stylistic difference in the use of this form. The prose texts including the tafsirs and commentaries are not homoge- neous, neither in their vocabulary nor in their grammar.

These local differences might also have been preserved in morphology and syntax. This seems to be a tendency, even if there are exam- ples of equivalents in simple past, as e. All in all, our conclusion is that the use of the second per- fect in these texts should be deined as a dialectal element. Its area must have been even larger than Khorasan and the surrounding territories because forms similar to this second perfect are recorded even today in the southern Tajik dia- lects16 and in Dari Its use is especially wide-spread in the southern Tajik dia- lects in which the analytic forms with istodan are used scarcely or hardly ever, but they never occur in the dialects northwards from the Zeravshan ridge.

When reading the tafsirs one has the impression that there is an inclination to use such construc- tions as e. Probably they were modelled as their analogy, but there is a substantial difference between them. In the latter group the PP has its original passive meaning Examples 29 and 30 show that e. If we look for parallels of this periphrasis in even earlier periods, we will come to texts in Middle Persian. Here aspect does not exist as a well-deined independent category in verbal morphology.

It is mainly expressed by adverbs and preverbs. But in this respect MP texts vary signiicantly among themselves. The differences are not only in degree but in kind. In fact, they do not seem to be used as auxiliaries in the strict sense of the word at all. In those con- structions in which they do appear they retain their original meaning conveying only aspectual shades to the verb phrases.

Here it serves as an auxiliary of perfect forms or, at least, shows a tendency towards this kind of usage Conclusion We started our analysis with the present-day situation because modern texts are much richer in variation and they are at the disposal of linguists in un- limited quantity.

Modern Persian and Tajik use two different ways for expressing the progressive with auxiliation. Both their techniques and their auxiliaries are different, although the elements of the periphrasis are chosen from a common set. These divergencies seem to be in connection with the historical and areal background of these two languages.

In Classical and Modern Formal Persian the use of the verbal preix is dominant in conveying the imperfective aspect. With- in this aspect a new shade is expressed by the progressive, formally based on imperfective forms. This Persian-type auxiliation proved to be a common North- Western Iranian isogloss which Modern Persian has taken over from the sur- rounding or substratum dialects This is an innovation of the latest times since this aspectual category is, in general, a comparatively recent development in many New Iranian and other modern Indo-European languages English, Ital- ian, etc.

The Tajik-type auxiliation seems to be closer to the genuine Persian tradi- tion. In this respect, Tajik agrees with the Fars-dialects and Lari by using the same auxiliary. But this is only a formal similarity. The meaning of the periphra- sis is essentially different: progressive in Tajik and perfective in the other two. The question still remains, however, as to how the Tajik progressive evolved from perfect. It is obvious — when aspect is dealt with — that the perfect constitutes the cardinal aspectual category apt to induce changes in the verbal system and to create new categories.

There are at least two ways in which this can happen : either through restructuring or through reinterpretation. In the irst case, the perfect forms may become contracted with the forms of simple past cf. Classical and Modern Persian or an auxiliary may be replaced by another aspec- tually more oriented one cf. In the second case, one of the possible aspectual shades of the perfect meaning becomes generalized.

This is what happened in Tajik and is now happening in Modern Persian where the perfect develops a new aspectual mean- ing inferential or distanced past It is true that the North-Eastern area has al- ways shown or even shows today, cf. Lazard a deeper inclination towards the use of verbal phrases grammaticalized or lexicalized. This may account for the fact that the Fars-dialects and Lari in their more isolated position have preserved the old usage.

For this reason we come to the conclusion that no sharp distinc- tion can be drawn between stylistic, dialectal and diachronic variations or, in a broader sense, between synchronic and diachronic linguistics lyonS This result seems to justify the growing conviction in linguistics during the last few decades that social, dialectal, areal and diachronic variations are ultimately inseparable. NOTES 1 Here progressive represents a situation not as simply existing, but as happening or developing through time lyonS Perfect here indicates the present relevance of a past situation at least in its basic, original meaning and usage comrie It is a well-known aspectual usage in Turkish languages and in some areas close to them.

Many of them belong to the common core of the spoken language s. This preixal usage is in the process of restructuring both in Dari and Tajik, although on this point the grammars should not be relied upon. Geiger doubts whether this is a real form geiger Boldyrev, A. Boyce, M. Browne, E. An introduction to the study of verbal aspect and related problems.

Masender anische Sprache. Grammaire du Kaboli, Paris. Novoiranskije jazyki, p. Kerimova, A. AN Taj. SSR, 5, p. Asian and African Grammatical Manual, No. Part II: Glossary, Wiesbaden. Novoiranskije jazyki, AI 22, p. Eva M. The deep importance of such sources has been focused on in various studies, starting, e.

Gray1 till the most recent contributions on the subject by Philippe Gignoux. Although it has been remarked by various scholars, specialists of Oriental Christianity but not very much indeed in the framework of Iranological studies , some Persian martyrs not only were members of Mazdean families, like, e. Few of these neo-converted nobles were also of priestly ori- gin. The last, a mem- ber of the famous Mihran family, monk at Mount Izla, was cruciiced in He does not come.

Give us joy today with food and drinks, show us honorary gifts with the wealth that Hormazd gave you». He answered that he had apostatized the same Hormazd and that he was a Christian. Thus, all went away from him». He recited quickly; the King laughed and ordered to give him a cushion20 and thought that one day something great should become again from him».

The most interesting chap- ters for the present discussion are the second and the eleventh: II. In fact, she moved from a town called Khirkhase- leukon, she derived from root and descent of a seed always offering wor- ship to the devil. He was very hostile against the dogma of the Christians and provided that his doughter avoided any company with them, and educated her so that she never might met with women of the land of the Greeks, because they often had acquired a Christian habit.

Then, from this woman she is nursed and to this very manner she is accustomed. To these statements we can now offer some additional considerations thanks to these Martyriologia. But the fact that such a child masterly re- cited these preyers in a very quick manner for his King and the rich prize he was given by his lord, conirm the importance that was commonly attributed to this kind of training surely comprehending also a good knowledge of the hymns.

This means that the ritual education of the young ladies was sometimes imparted from other well trained women, sometimes spe- ciically invited from other places. The direct ritual competence of the women is known also from scattered references in the Zoroastrian sources.

In other words, it seems that we can translate this passage as: a certain priest who Vir autem quidam nomine Simon qui ante fuerat in civitate magus, seducens genten Samariae dicens se esse aliquem magnum What magic incantations can conjure Love forth? But, as we have seen, this verb was already attested, although with a different meaning, at the time of Euripides; thus, we cannot state that it was coined only in Late An- tiquity.

In this respect, the verb was used in a more technical sense than in the already quoted passage of the Acts of the Apostles 8, 9. For the irst group it was referred to the devilish pagan worship and sacriice of the Magi, then from their special perspective a kind of witchcraft and idolatry, while for the others it represented the normal expression to be used in Greek for their own ritual worship and sacriice.

V, pp. CSCO, Versio. Series Tertia. Tomus IV. Chronica Minora, Parisiis , pp. Ad A narrative sourcebook, London and New York , pp. See also С. C, a cura di L. Lanciotti, Firenze , pp. Vedi inoltre G. Scher, Paris , BOr. Guidi, pp. Panaino, Philologia Avestica IV. The Avestan Hymn to Sirius, Rome , pp. About the survival of Zoroastrian habits among neo-converted Christians of Sasanian Persia see now M.

Modi Memorial Volume, Bombay , pp. Kotwal — Ph. Edited and translated by F. Kotwal and Ph. Kreyenbroek with contributions by J. Russell, Paris , pp. Fargard 1. Plato, in twelve volumes. With an English Translation. The Statesman — Philebus, by H. Fowler and W. Lamb, London — Cambridge Massachusetts , pp. Robbins, Cam- bridge Massachusetts — London , pp. Tolomeo, Le Previsioni astrologiche Tetrabiblos , acuradi S. Feraboli, Milano , pp. Croiset, Paris, , pp. Acta Iranica BacK, Die Sassanidischen Staatsinschriften, p.

Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicaram. II, p. Liddell and R. Revised and aug- mented throughout by H. Stuart Jones with the assistance of R. McKenzie and with the co-oper- ation of many scholars. With a Supplement, Oxford , p. Libro I. La Lidia e la Persia, a cura di D. Asheri, traduzione di V. An- telami, Milano , p. Conybeare, in Two Volumes. I, London — Cambridge Mass.

Merk, editio nona, Romae , p. Way in Four Volumes. Lindskog et К Ziegler. Piccirilli, Milano Hled. Perrin, Vol. Jones, Vol. Libro VI. Testo e traduzione a cura di G Maddo- lieM. Naissi, Milano , pp. Gaselee, London — Cambridge Massachusetts , pp. Frazer, vol. I, London — Cambridge , pp. Scarpi, Traduzione di M.

Ciani, Milano Died. I Dotti a ban- chet to. Prima traduzione italiana commentata su progetto di Luciano Canfora. Introduzione di Chr. Jacob, Roma , vol. II, pp. IV Greek text , pp. Paton, vol. IV, London — Cambridge Massachusetts , pp. Extrait de Syria, , Paris, , pp. Cumont, Anatolian Studies Buckler, pp. Boyce and Fr. Grenet, A History of Zoroastrian- ism. Zoroastrian under Macedonian and Roman Rule. With a Contribution of R.

Beck, Leiden , pp. BenVeniSte, Les Mages, p. Семантическая однородность этого материала — в нем представлены в основном ономастика, антропонимика, топонимика — не является препят- ствием к тому, чтоб расширить на его базе представление, в частности, о нраве и типах именной композиции в западных древнеиранских язы- ках.

Это и является целью истинной статьи. В ней мы опирались, основным образом, на лексический корпус из обобщающей публикации В. Хинца г. В тексте источник дает- ся в квадратных скобках. Ежели применена одна публикация создателя, то ссылка на год издания отсутствует.

В древнеперсидском и мидийском языках представлены главные типы словосложения, свойственные как древнеиндийскому, так и авестий- скому, а именно: бахуврихи, татпуруша, кармадхарая унаследованы от ин- доевропейского состояния , двандва от индоиранского. Крайний тип, по имеющимся материалам, не настолько продуктивен, как другие. Подроб- нее о каждом из их см. Композиты в мидийском и древнеперсидском языках почаще всего со- ставлены из 2-ух компонентов.

Вкупе с тем, продолжая индо-иранскую черту, 1-ый компонент может иметь п а д е ж н о е оформление, а конкретно — форму и м е н и - т е л ь н о г о падежа ед. Возможны также: форма в и н и т е л ь н о г о падежа ед. Неясна для нас форма первого компонента в неких композитах татпуруша: выставленные в их a-основы имеют другой финал — не лишь -а-, но и -i-.

Mithridates [ibid. Морфологическая цельнооформленность композит. Традиционно падеж- ная флексия присоединяется к крайнему компоненту, см. Но встречается и морфологическая разнооформленность компонентов. Противоречивые тенденции отра- супруги в имени Ормузда-Ахурамазды в одной и той же Бе-хистунской над- писи.

В нем, с одной стороны, наблюдается как рефлекс разнооформлен- ность компонентов: др. Морфонологические явления на стыке компонентов композит. Соколов упоминает [Соколов г. В композитах ба- хуврихи с первым компонентом-причастием реального времени от пере- ходного глагола с суф.

В основах с суф. Но см. В основах на -п- этот конечный -п- утрачивается: мид. Так, в др. Главные типы композит. Тип б а х у в р и х и именуют по другому при- тяжательными сложными словами Барроу либо прилагательными облада- ния либо дела Соколов. Этот тип в западных древнеиранских языках продуктивен.

Он представлен несколькими структурными вариан- тами. Образцы: мид. В ряде композит-бахуврихи свидетельствуется предпочтительная форма первого адъективного компонента с суффиксом -i-, а именно: др. Примеры: др.

Тут уместно вспомнить изюминка словосложения в древнеин- дийском. Это явление — индоиранского уровня [ibid. Примеры: мид. Эту модель считают индоиранской инновацией [D. Она продуктивна в авестийском. Древнеперсидские композиты с первым глагольным компонентом трактуются разносторонне, см. Читать 3 отзыва. Речной вокзал Муниципальная.

Золотая нива Муниципальная. Золотая нива м. Стоматологии в районе Дзержинский Стоматологии в районе Жд Стоматологии в районе Заельцовский Стоматологии в районе Калининский Стоматологии в районе Кировский Стоматологии в районе Ленинский Стоматологии в районе Октябрьский Стоматологии в районе Первомайский Стоматологии в районе Русский Стоматологии в районе Центральный.

Диагностика зубов. Консультация стоматолога-ортопеда. Консультация имплантолога. Панорамный снимок челюсти. Компьютерная томография. Консультация пародонтолога. Рентген зубов. Консультация ортодонта. Консультация челюстно-лицевого доктора. Еще сервисы. Терапевтическая стоматология. Исцеление поверхностного кариеса. Исцеление пульпита.

Установка пломбы. Исцеление флюса. Исцеление стоматита у взрослых. Исцеление периодонтита корня зуба. Исцеление зубов под наркозом. Исцеление зубов под седацией. Исцеление кариеса ICON. Исцеление зубов лазером. Исцеление зубов под микроскопом. Распломбировка каналов. Исцеление пришеечного кариеса.

Исцеление передних зубов. Световая пломба. Депульпирование зуба. Протезирование зубов. Установка съемного протеза. Установка железной коронки. Установка металлокерамической коронки. Установка бюгельного протеза. Установка коронки на зуб. Протезирование на имплантатах. Установка мостовидного протеза. Установка отчасти съемного протеза. Установка глиняной коронки. Установка коронки из диоксида циркония.

Установка глиняной вкладки. Ремонт зубных протезов. Перебазировка съёмного протеза. Установка пластмассовой коронки. Установка нейлонового протеза. Установка пластиночного протеза. Установка акрилового протеза. Установка иммедиат-протеза.

Установка условно-съемного протеза. Установка полиуретанового протеза. Установка фарфоровой коронки. Ремонт скола керамики. Установка покрывного протеза. Установка несъемного протеза. Комплексная гигиена полости рта. Ультразвуковая очистка зубов air flow.

Удаление зубного камня. Полировка зубов. Процедура фторирование зубов. Герметизация фиссур. Восстановление эмали зубов. Эстетическая стоматология. Установка виниров под ключ. Отбеливание Zoom. Лазерное отбеливание. Отбеливание Zoom 4. Установка глиняних виниров. Установка скайсов. Отбеливание зубов. Установка композитных виниров. Установка люминиров. Отбеливание Amazing White. Наращивание передних зубов. Установка виниров E-max. Внутриканальное отбеливание.

Отбеливание Opalescence. Установка циркониевых виниров. Отбеливание Beyond. Хирургическая стоматология. Процедура удаления зуба. Удаление кисты и гранулемы зуба. Лоскутные операции. Пластика уздечки языка. Пластика уздечки губки.

Удаление зуба мудрости. Сложное удаление зуба. Удаление подвижного зуба. Удаление неизменного зуба. Удаление зуба под наркозом. Синус лифтинг костной ткани. Иссечение капюшона зуба. Удаление импланта зуба. Удаление корня зуба. Гемисекция зуба.

Резекция верхушки корня зуба. Удаление камня слюнной железы. Исцеление абсцесса полости рта. Удаление эпулиса. Исцеление слюнных желез. Установка элайнеров. Установка брекетов.

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